能飞背单词
首页
产品介绍
词汇课程
单词应用
能飞词典
支付中心
常见问题
意见反馈
蓝鹦鹉
大学英语语法大全
编辑:langfly      发布:能飞背单词      发布时间:2016/3/29

更多语法大全,语法知识,单词记忆,可点击:能飞背单词软件 在线背单词服务,http://word.langfly.com

语法大全



中国学生为什么容易犯英语语法错误,从而觉得英语语法难学,甚至对之产生某种恐惧心理呢?这主要有两个原因:
一是汉语的语法相对简单,而中国学生在学习英语时习惯用汉语进行思维,在运用英语时套用汉语的语法;
二是对于英语语言的接触和分析不够:学习英语要多阅读、多听,对于一个英语句子,要分析其所以然,这样就能找到英语语言的规律。
每种语言都有它的难点。汉语的难点在于汉语不是拼读语言,汉字很难写,而且有四种声调。其实,许多接触过多种外语的人都认为,英语的语法比法语、德语、俄语、日语等都简单,是最容易学的。著名语言学家乔姆斯基说过,语法是内生的、也就是随着语言的诞生而诞生的。因此,学习语法和学习语言是相辅相成的。希望大家对英语语法充满信心,对学好英语充满信心。
下面我们从英语语法的难点和核心?动词?开始英语语法的学习。

一、 英语动词的时态

(一)英汉两种语言在时态表达方式上的差异:
英语的词类与汉语的不同。汉语词类形态稳定,比如“书”这个字,“一本书”、“三本书”都一样,没有词形变化。英语就不同了,book, books仅从词形上就能知道是单数还是复数。
动词是英语中变化最多、最复杂的词类。有人说,学好英语就是学好动词,此言甚是。同一个动作或状态分别在不同时间发生或存在,表达这个动作或状态的动词就要用不同的形式,这就是时态。
例如:在“中国是个伟大的国家。”和“中国曾经是世界上最伟大的国家。”这两句话当中,汉语的“是”没有变化,而是用“曾经”这个词来表达时间的不同。
China is a great country.中国是个伟大的国家。
China was the greatest country in the world.中国曾经是世界上最伟大的国家。
在这几句中,动词be的形态变了,表示的时间变了,但意义没有变化。
再如,“他经常帮助我。”“他昨天帮助我了。”和“他一直在帮助我。”这三句话当中,汉语的“帮助”没有任何变化,而是用“经常”、“一直”和“昨天”分别表达出时间的区别。英语就不同,它必须用动词本身的形态变化来完成任务。
He often helps me.他经常帮助我。
He helped me yesterday.他昨天帮助我了。
He has been helping me.他一直在帮助我。
在这几句中,动词help的形态变了,表示的时间变了,但意义没有变化。

(二)英语动词的形式:
英语的时态是通过动词的变化来体现的。因此,了解动词的形式及其变化规律非常重要。英语的实义动词有以下五种形式:
(1) 动词原形:动词原形在句子中形式不变。主要用于主语为非第三人称单数的一般现在时,情态动词之后,或根据语法规定必须用动词原形的其他情况。
(2) 一般现在时第三人称单数形式(简称现单三):主要用于主语为第三人称单数的一般现在时。
(3) 过去式:主要用于一般过去时。
(4) 现在分词:主要用于进行时态,或语法规定的其他情况。
(5) 过去分词:主要用于完成时态,或语法规定的其他情况。
这里提到的“语法规定的其他情况”我们在以后的讲座中会详细介绍。
下面把这些动词形式的构成说明一下。
动词一般现在时第三人称单数(现单三)的构成,见下表:
词尾变化(规律与名词变复数相同,读音也与名词复数相同) 举例
一般加-s Help---helps; read---reads
在ch, sh, s, x 或元音字母o后面加-es Do, fix, pass, push, teach ---does, fixes, passes, pushes, teaches
以辅音字母加y结尾的词,变y为i再加-es Try, study --- tries, stuides
与名词变复数形式相同,读音也相同。
动词过去式和过去分词,大多数是动词原形+ ed 构成,这是规则动词。规则动词的拼写和读音规则如下表:
词尾变化 举例 词尾读音
动词后面加-ed Help---helped Work---worked
Watch---watched 清辅音之后读[t]
Want---wanted need---needed [t] ,[d]之后读[t]
Turn---turned play--played 元音和浊辅音([d]除外)之后读[d]
以不发音的“e”结尾的词,加-d Love---loved
Serve---served
结尾是辅音字母+y时,y变i,再加-ed Study---studied
Try---tried
结尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节词,双写辅音字母再加-ed Stop---stopped
Drop---dropped 清辅音之后读[t]
不规则动词的过去式和过去分词有其特殊变化形式,需要个别记忆,同时也要善于发现不规则中的规则,即某些字母组合的不规则动词有一定的规律。如:weep→wept, sleep→slept, sweep→swept
现在分词一律由动词原形加-ing构成,规则如下表:
词尾变化 举例
一般加-ing Look---looking, try---trying
以不发音的e结尾的词,去掉e,再加-ing Write---writing, dance---dancing
以一个辅音字母(x除外)词尾的重读闭音节词,先双写词尾的辅音字母,再加-ing Begin---beginning, swim---swimming,
Run---running, sit---sitting
以-ie结尾的词,变ie为y,再加-ing Die---dying, lie---lying
为了学习的方便,人们把时间分为四个阶段:“现在、过去、将来、过去将来”。英语动词所表示的动作在以上每个时间段中分别有四种状态:一般、进行、完成和完成进行。因此我们便有了四四一十六个时态。
不同的时态有不同的变化形式。以do 为例,列表如下:
时态 一般 进行 完成 完成进行
现在时 Does; do Am/is/are+doing Has/have+done Has/have+been doing
过去时 Did Was/were+doing Had done Had been doing
将来时 Shall/will+do Shall/will be +doing Shall/will have + done Shall/will+have been doing
过去将来时 Should/would/+do Would/should+be doing Should/would + have done Would/should + have been doing
“时态”就是通过动词的形态变化,来表达动作发生的时间(现在、过去、将来、过去将来)及所处的状态(一般、进行、完成、完成进行)。
比如在“They are doing their exercises.”这个句子中,动词由原形do 变成are doing 的形态,说明这个事情是发生在现在、并处于正在进行的状态当中,所以叫现在进行时;
在“They have done their exercises.”这句中,动词由原形do 变成have done的形态,说明这个事情是发生在现在、并处于完成的状态,所以叫现在完成时;
在“They always do their exercises.”中,动词用原形do 的形态,说明这个事情是发生在现在、并且是一般情况下永远如此,所以叫一般现在时。
在这三句话中,动词do 虽然用了不同的形态,其意义没有变化,而是事情发生的时间和状态变了。其余类推。
16个时态中,常用的有12个:一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、过去将来时、现在进行时、过去进行时、将来进行时、现在完成时、过去完成时、将来完成时、现在完成进行时和过去完成进行时。其他时态很少单独使用。

下面我们把各种时态的构成和用法做一个全面的介绍。
1、一般现在时
(1)构成:通常以动词原形表示。主语为第三人称单数时,用现单三形式。
动词be和have(表示“拥有”)各人称的单数形式为:
第一人称单数 第二人称单数 第三人称单数
Have Have Have Has
Be Am Are is
一般现在时的否定式、疑问式和简单回答形式如下:
动词be 与 have(表示“拥有”):否定式直接把not放在动词之后,疑问式直接把动词放在主语之前,见下表:
否定式 疑问式
Be Have Be Have
I am not (I’m not)… I have not (haven’t)… Am i…? Have i…?
You are not (aren’t)… You have not (haven’t)… Are you…? Have you…?
He is not (isn’t)… He has not (hasn’t)… Is he …? Has he …?
动词be 的否定疑问式和简单回答:
否定疑问式 肯定回答 否定回答
Am I not (aren’t i)…? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t
Are you not (aren’t you)…? Yes, I am. No, I’m not.
Is he not (isn’t he)…? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t
动词be 与 have(表示“拥有”):否定式直接把not放在动词之后,疑问式直接把动词放在主语之前,见下表:
否定式 疑问式
Be Have Be Have
I am not (I’m not)… I have not (haven’t)… Am i…? Have I …?
You are not (aren’t)… You have not (haven’t)… Are you …? Have you…?
He is not (isn’t)… He has not (hasn’t)… Is he …? Has he …?
动词have(表示“拥有”) 的否定疑问式和简单回答:
否定疑问式 肯定回答 否定回答
Have I not (haven’t i)…? Yes, you have. No, you haven’t.
Have you not (haven’t you)…? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t.
Has he not (hasn’t he)…? Yes, he has. No, he hasn’t.
注意:have 作为行为动词则只能按照行为动词的规则变化。
行为动词(以study为例)一般现在时的否定式、疑问式和简单回答(注意要加助动词do/does)
否定式 疑问式
I do not (don’t) study Do I study
You do not (don’t) study Do you study
He does not (doesn’t) study Does he study

否定疑问句式 简单回答(肯定/否定)
Do I not (Don’t I) study…? Yes, I do. No, I don’t.
Do you not (Don’t you) study…? Yes, you do. No, you don’t.
Does he not (Doesn’t he) study…? Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t.
(2)用法:
1)一般现在时表示现状、性质、状态和经常的或习惯性的动作。
He has an uncle.他有个叔叔。
Autumn follows summer.夏天之后是秋天。
It is fine today.今天天气好。
You look pale.你脸色苍白。
He is good at music.他擅长音乐。
He knows a lot of English.他英语懂的很多。
这些动词可与often, usually, always, sometimes, every day, once a week, on Sundays, never 等表示经常性或习惯性的时间状语连用。例如:
Do you often go to the cinema? 你经常去看电影吗?
He always helps others. 他总是帮助别人。
Tom does not study as hard as Jane. 汤姆在学习方面不如简努力。
My father never takes a bus; he walks to his office.我父亲从来不坐公共汽车,他走着去上班。
2)一般现在时表示客观现实或普遍真理。
Japan lies to the east of China. 日本在中国的东边。
The sun rises in the east. 太阳从东方升起。
A horse is a useful animal. 马是一种有用的动物。
Water boils at 100℃. 水在摄氏一百度时沸腾。
October 1st is our National Day. 十月一日是我们的国庆节。
When Winter comes, can Spring be far behind? 冬天来了,春天还会远吗?(英国浪漫主义诗人雪莱的名句。)
Beauty is truth, truth beauty. 美即真理,真理即美。(英国浪漫主义诗人济慈的名句。) 3)少数动词如go, come, leave, arrive, begin, start, be 等的一般现在时可以表示按规定、计划或安排预计要发生的事情。
The plane takes off at six past five. 飞机将于六点零五分起飞。
Tomorrow is Sunday. 明天是星期天。
Our summer vacation begins in early July. 我们的暑假七月初开始。
4)在时间和条件状语从句中可用一般现在时代替一般将来时。
I’ll let you know as soon as I hear from him.
我一接到他的信就告诉你。
He’ll go if it is fine tomorrow. 如果明天天气好,他就去。
I shall be away when he arrives. 等他到了我就不在了。
We shall not begin the discussion until he arrives. 等他来了,我们再开始讨论。
5)在某些以here, there 开头的句子中用一般现在时表示现在发生的动作。
Here comes the bus. 汽车来了。
There goes the bell. 铃响了。
Here they come. 他们来了。
6)在进行体育比赛过程中解说员叙述迅速、短暂动作时,可用一般现在时表示正在进行的或刚刚发生的动作。例如:
Bater passes the ball to Yao Ming. Yao shoots?A fine shot! 巴特尔把球传给姚明,姚明投篮,好球!
7)在戏剧、电影等的剧本或图片的说明文字中,可用一般现在时表示动作。例如:
When the curtain rises, Juliet is sitting at her desk. The phone rings. She picks it up and listens quietly. 幕启,朱丽叶坐在桌旁。电话铃响,她拿起听筒,静静地听着。

Now please translate the following sentences into English:
1)见到你我很高兴。
I am very glad to see/meet you.
2)李华只懂一点英语。
Li Hua only knows a little English.
3)他们每天晚上看电视。
They watch TV every evening.
4)我坐飞机走,明天早晨六点到那里。
I leave by air and arrive there at six tomorrow morning.
5)你多久给你的母亲写一封信?
How often do you write to your mother?
6)你的朋友看起来很年轻。
Your friend looks very young.
7)汤姆经常在床上看书。
Tom often reads in bed.
8)你在发音方面有困难吗?
Do you have any trouble with pronunciation?

2、现在进行时
(1)构成:由助动词be + 现在分词构成。其中be有人称和数的变化,有三种形式:第一人称单数用am, 第三人称单数用is, 其他用are。
现在进行时的否定式是:直接在助动词be后面加上not;疑问式是:把助动词be提到主语之前。以study 为例:
否定式 疑问式
I am not studying Am I studying?
You are not studying, Are you studying?
He is not studying. Is he studying?
(2)用法:
1)现在进行时表示说话时正在发生或进行着的动作。例如:
I am writing a letter. 我正在写信。
They are learning English. 他们正在学习英语。
Is it raining now? 现在下雨吗?
有时表示现阶段正在进行而说话时不一定正在进行的动作。例如:
More and more people are paying attention to their health.
越来越多的人在关注健康。
He is translating a novel. 他在翻译一本小说。
2)有些动词,如come, go, leave, return, arrive, begin, start等,它们的现在进行时可表示不远的将来要发生的事情。例如:
Flight 1095 is landing soon. 第1095号航班马上要着陆了。
I know the end is coming. 我知道马上就要结束了。
Mary is coming back from her visit to Shanghai. 玛丽很快就要从上海访问回来了。
3)现在进行时常与always, continually, constantly 等副词连用,表示反复出现的或习惯性的动作。这种用法常表示说话人的某种感情,如赞扬、遗憾、讨厌或不满等。例如:
He is always asking questions. 他老爱提问题。
You are always saying that sort of thing. 你老爱说那样的话。
She is always complaining. 她总是喜欢抱怨。
4)在一定的上下文中,后一句的动词谓语用现在进行时与前一句的一般现在时相配合,可用以体现原因、结果、目的等意味。即前一句用一般现在时动词谓语表述现在发生的事实,而后一句用现在进行时动词谓语来阐明这一事实的原因、结果、目的等。例如:
He frowns. He is worrying about his boy. 他皱着眉头,因为他在为他的孩子担心。
She criticizes him. She is trying to correct his bad habits. 她批评他,想纠正他的坏习惯。
She lets her child have his own way. She is spoiling him. 她不管她的孩子。这是在把他惯坏了。(结果)

翻译练习:
1)新生下星期到。
The new students are arriving next week.
2)那边出了什么事?
What is happening over there?
3)那辆汽车怎么停在门外?
Why is that car parking (stopping) outside the gate?
4)他们正在看电视里的足球赛。
They are watching a football match on television.
5)他老爱开玩笑。
He is always joking.
6)我们从国外进口机器,我们在学习新的科学技术。
We import machines from abroad; we are learning new science and technology.

3、现在完成时
(1)构成:现在完成时由助动词have + 过去分词构成,助动词have 有人称和数的变化。第三人称单数用has,其余用have.
现在完成时的否定式直接在助动词后面加上not、疑问式是把助动词提到主语之前。以study 为例,其否定式、疑问式和简单回答形式如下:
否定式 疑问式
I have not (haven’t) studied…. Have I studied…?
You have not (haven’t) studied…. Have you studied…?
He has not (hasn’t) studied…. Has he studied…?

否定疑问式 简单回答(肯定/否定)
Have I not (Haven’t i) studied…? Yes, you have. No, you haven’t.
Have you not (Haven’t you) studied…? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t.
Has he not (Hasn’t he) studied…? Yes, he has. No, he hasn’t.
(2)用法:
1)现在完成时通常表示在说话之前已经完成的动作或存在的状态。说话人强调的是该动作或状态对现在的结果或影响。而一般过去时也表示动作已经完成,但强调的是过去发生了某一动作这样一个事实。有的同学觉得这种说法比较难以理解,因为任何过去的动作对现在都有影响,很难判断用一般过去时或现在完成时。事实上,这种说法没有把现在完成时与一般过去时的根本区别说清楚。如果没有说明动作发生的具体时间,则一般用现在完成时;如果说明了动作发生的具体时间,带有表示过去的时间状语,则用一般过去时。例如:
My daughter has just gone out. 我女儿刚出去。
I’m sure we’ve met before. 我肯定我们以前见过面。
She has arrived. 她到了。
2)表示持续到现在的动作或状态,往往和包括现在在内的表示一段时间的状语连用,如today, these days, recently, now, lately, for…, since…, in the last/past two weeks/years/days/months, just 等。如:
I haven’t heard from her these days. 这些日子我没有收到她的信。
We haven’t seen you recently. 最近我们没有见到你。
They have been away for two years. 他们离开已经两年了。
She has been with us since Monday.
她从星期一就一直和我们在一起。
注意:
1)表示短暂意义的动词如open, go, come, die, arrive, leave, lose, fall等,在完成时当中不能和包括现在在内的表示一段时间的状语连用,因为它们表示的动作不可能持续。因此,不能说:
×He has come here for 2 weeks.
×The old man has died for 4 months.
×They have left only for 5 minutes.
以上三句话可以改为:
It’s two weeks since he came here. He has been here for 2 weeks.
It’s 4 months since the old man died.
They have been away only for 5 minutes
2)have (has) been 和have (has) gone的区别:表示“曾到过某地”要用 “have (has) been”; 表示“已经去某地”要用 “have (has) gone”。试比较:
Where has he been? 他刚才到哪里去了?(已经回来了)
Where has he gone? 他上哪儿去了?(人不在)
They have been to Canada. 他们到过加拿大。(现在已经不在加拿大)
They have gone to Canada. 他们到加拿大去了。(可能在路上和已经到加拿大).
3)现在完成时不能和明确指出时间的状语,如yesterday, last year, in 1976, two days ago, just now, when I came in 等连用, 但可以和不明确指出时间的状语,如already, yet, sometimes, always, often, before, lately, recently, once, twice, ever, never等连用。例如:
She has already come. 她已经来了。
I haven’t read it yet. 我还没读过这个。
I have met him before. 我从前曾见过他。
Ma Hong has always been a good student. 马红一直是个好学生。
I have often seen him in the street. 我经常在街上看见他。
They have never been to Yan’an. 他们从未去过延安。
I haven't seen him lately. 我近来没看到他。

翻译练习:
1)他们已经答复了我们的信。
They have already answered our letter.
2)自去年以来我就未遇见过王英。
I haven’t met Wang Ying since last year.
3)他刚把他的名字告诉我。
He has just told me his name.
4)你到过杭州吗? 到过。我一个月以前去过那里。我去过两三次。
Have you ever been to Hangzhou? Yes, I have. I went there a month ago. I have been there two or three times.
5)他在海外住了很长时间了。
He has lived abroad for a very long time.

4、现在完成进行时
(1)构成:第三人称单数由has been + 动词的现在分词;其他人称和数由have been + 动词的现在分词。
(2)用法:
1)表示动作从过去开始一直延续到现在,可能刚刚终止,也可能仍然在进行。
I’ve been waiting for you since eight o’clock in the morning. 我从早上8点钟一直在等你。
It has been raining for three hours. 雨一直下了三个小时了。
What book have you been reading recently? 最近你一直在读什么书?
2)有些动词不能用于现在进行时,如be, have, like, love, know, see, hear等,这些词同样也不能用于现在完成进行时。如:
I haven’t seen you for ages. 我好久没见到你了。
I have loved her for a long time. 我一直爱她。
I have known him for a long time. 我认识他很久了。
3)现在完成时表示到现在为止已经完成的动作,强调结果;而现在完成进行时强调动作的持续性,强调“一直”,往往表示动作仍未结束。如:
I have been reading this novel. 我一直在读这本小说。(我仍然在读)
I have read two novels. 我已读过两本小说。(可能刚读过,也可能很久以前读的)
I have been writing letters. 我一直都在写信。
I have written three letters. 我已经写完三封信了。
Now we have cleaned the room, we can move the things in. 既然我们已经打扫完房间,我们可以把东西搬进来了。
We’ve been cleaning the classroom, but we haven’t finished yet. 我们一直在打扫教室,但还没干完。

翻译练习:
1)你整个早晨在学习什么?
What have you been studying all the morning?
2)你已经参加过期末考试了吗?
Have you taken your final examination?
3)学生们一直在为高考准备功课。
The students have been preparing their lessons for the college entrance examination.
4)我们从小就认识。
We have known each other since childhood.
5)1949年以来,王先生一直在这所学校教物理。
Mr. Wang has been teaching physics in this school since 1949.
6)雨一直下了一个星期。
It has been raining for a week.

5、一般过去时
(1)构成:一般过去时通常由动词过去式表示。一般过去时的否定式、疑问式和简单回答形式要用助动词do 的过去式did, 同时注意实义动词要用原形。以study 为例,其否定式、疑问式和简单回答形式如下:
否定式 疑问式
I did not (didn’t) study…. Did I study…?
You did not (didn’t) study…. Did you study…?
He did not (didn’t) study…. Did he study…?

否定疑问式 简单回答 (肯定/否定)
Did I not (Didn’t I) study…? Yes, you did. No, you didn’t.
Di you not (Didn’t you) study…? Yes, I did. No, I didn’t.
Did he not (Didn’t he) study…? Yes, he did. No, he didn’t.
(2)用法:一般过去时动词主要表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内发生的动作或情况,其中包括习惯性动作,通常与表示过去的时间状语连用。
The train arrived ten minutes ago. 火车十分钟前就到了。
What time did you get up yesterday morning? 昨天早晨你是什么时候起床的?
I used to go to school early. 我过去总是很早去学校。
He always went to work by bus. 他过去老乘车去上班。
Li Hong lived in Shanghai for ten years when she was young. 李红小时候在上海住过十年。(有的同学认为出现了for some time 之类的时间状语,就要用完成时态。这种看法不完全正确。如果指的是在过去某事持续了一段时间,就要用一般过去时)
注意:在动词用一般过去时的句子里通常有时间状语,表明动作发生的时间。如该句中没有时间状语,那么上下文中一定有表明过去的时间状语或可以体现“动作或情况发生在过去”这一概念。

翻译练习:
1)他昨天晚上离开这里到上海去了。
He left for Shanghai yesterday evening.
2)你昨天早上是什么时候醒来的? 我六点钟醒的,可是到七点才起床。
What time did you wake up yesterday morning? ?I woke up at six o’clock, but did not get up until 7.
3)星期一有个外国朋友来参观过我们学校了。
A foreign friend visited our school on Monday.
4)我上中学的时候总是六点钟起床。
I used to get up at six when I was at middle school.
5)周总理曾经常在这里办公。
Premier Zhou used to work here.

6、过去进行时
(1)构成:由助动词be 的过去式 + 现在分词构成。其中be有人称和数的变化,第一、第三人称单数用was,其他用were.
1)过去进行时动词主要表示在过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行或持续进行的动作。过去进行时经常与过去时配合使用。例如:
This time yesterday, we were having an English lesson. 昨天这个时候,我们正在上英语课。
The teacher was giving us a lesson when Tom walked into the room. 老师在给我们上课时,汤姆走进教室。
While we were having supper, all the lights went out. 我们吃饭的时候,灯灭了。
He was reading while she was setting the table. 她摆桌子时,他在读书。
It was getting dark. The wind was rising. 天渐渐黑下来了。风势增强了。

2)过去进行时动词常用always, continually, frequently 等词连用,表示过去经常发生的行为。这种用法表明带有的感情色彩。例如:
The two brothers were frequently quarreling when they were young. 两兄弟小时候常吵架。
In Qing Dynasty, China was always making concessions to western powers. 清朝时,中国总是对西方列强妥协。

翻译练习:
1)我记得他哥哥上小学时经常在课堂上提问题。
I remember his brother was constantly asking questions in class when he was at primary school.
2)我母亲做饭的时候,我父亲在抽烟。
While my mother was cooking, my father was smoking.
3)我正在写东西,小明把灯关了。
When I was writing, Xiao Ming turned off the light.
4)夕阳西下,天渐渐黑下来了。
The sun was setting. It was getting dark. 5)你走进他们的房间时,他们正在听广播吗?
Were they listening to the broadcast when you entered their room?
6)她给你打电话的时候,你在干什么?
What were you doing when she called you on the phone?

7、过去完成时
(1)构成:一律用had + 过去分词构成。
(2)用法:
1)表示发生在过去某一时间或动作之前的事情,即“过去的过去”。用过去完成时,必须有一个过去的时间或动作来作参照,说明在此之前某事已发生。如果两个动作都是在过去发生的,先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的用一般过去时。例如:
She told me she had been there three times before. 她告诉我她以前到过那里三次。(“去过”发生在“告诉”之前)
How long had he taught here by the end of last term? 到上学期末为止,他在这里教学多长时间啦? (“教学”发生在上学期末结束之前)
When we arrived, the football match had already begun. 我们到的时候,足球赛已经开始了。
She had visited China twice before she came this year. 她今年来中国之前已访问过中国两次了。
2)过去完成时动词可以表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或呈现的状态,这一动作一直持续到过去这一时刻或将继续下去。例如:
By the middle of last month, I had lived in Beijing for five years. 到上月中旬,我已在北京住了五年了。
By six o’clock they had worked for eight hours. 到六点为止,他们已工作八小时了。
When I came to Shanghai, he had been there for a long time. 我到上海时,他在那里很长时间了。
3)过去完成时动词常用于间接引语和虚拟语气,我们以后会详细讲述。

4)此外,过去完成时常用于 no sooner…than… 和 hardly(scarcely) …when… 这两个句型,前面部分用过去完成时,后面部分用一般过去时。例如:
No sooner had he stolen the purse than he was caught red-handed. = He had no sooner stolen the purse than he was caught red-handed. 他刚偷到钱包就被当场抓获。
Saddam had hardly realized what was happening when he was captured. = Hardly had Saddam realized what was happening when he was captured. 萨达姆还没有意识到在发生什么事情就被抓获了。

翻译练习:
1)很幸运,下雨前我们已经到家了。
Luckily, we had got home before it began to rain.
2)张华说他的笔记本丢了。
Zhang Hua said he had lost his notebook.
3)他曾告诉过我,会议两点钟开。可是当我到了以后,我还得等到两点半。
He had told me that the meeting was at 2, but when I arrived I had to wait till 2:30.
4)他在这里住了两三天,才觉得没有什么拘束(feel at home)。
When he had stayed here for two or three days, he began to feel at home.

8、过去完成进行时
(1)形式:had been + 动词的现在分词。
(2)用法:表示一直持续到过去某个时间的行为动作,此行为动作或刚结束、或还没结束(可以从上下文看出)。这一时态经常与一般过去时一起使用。例如:
When he came in, I had been trying to repair the TV for a couple of hours. 他进来的时候,我一直在努力修理电视机好几个小时了
The roads were dangerous. It had been raining for two whole days. 道路很危险。雨一直下了两整天。
They were tired because they had been digging since dawn. 他们累了,因为从天亮开始他们就一直在挖。
The boy was delighted with the new mountain bike. He had been hoping for one for a long time. 那男孩得到一辆新山地自行车很高兴。很长时间来他一直希望有一辆。

9、一般将来时
一般将来时动词表示将来发生的动作或情况。主要有以下几种表现形式:
(1)shall/will + 动词原形
表示单纯的将来,不涉及主语的主观意愿。第一人称I, we用shall 或will,其余用will. 其否定式、疑问式和简单回答形式如下:
否定式 疑问式
I shall/will not study…. Shall I study…?
You will not study…. Will you study…?
He will not study…. Will he study…?

否定疑问式 简单回答(肯定/否定)
Shall I not (shan’t i) study…? Yes, you will. No, you won’t.
Will you not (Won’t you) study…? Yes, I shall/will. No, I shan’t/won’t.
Will he not (Won’t he) study….? Yes, he will. No, he won’t.

例如:
I shall be twenty years old next year. 我明年二十岁。
The sky is black. I think it will rain. 天黑下来了。我想可能会下雨。
You will meet him at the station this afternoon. 你下午会在车站碰到他。
The train will arrive soon. 火车快要到了。
When shall we see you next time? 我们下次什么时候能看见你呢?
He probably won’t go with us. 他大概不能和我们一起去。
注意:
1)shall, will的缩写形式为’ll, 如I’ll, you’ll, he’ll 和she’ll等。
2)will 用于第一人称时,可以表示将来的意愿、决心、允诺、命令等;shall用于第二、三人称时,可以表示说话人的将来的意愿。例如:
I will give you a new pen for your birthday. 我将送你一支新钢笔作为生日礼物。(允诺)
I will take the college entrance examination. 我将参加大学入学考试。(决心)
Shall I open the window? 我打开窗户好吗?(征求允诺)
You shall have the book as soon as I get it. 我一拿到书就给你。(说话人的允诺)
The enemy shall not pass. 决不让敌人通过。(说话人的保证)
I will do my best to help you. 我愿意尽力帮助你。(意愿)
Nobody shall be late for the meeting. 任何人开会都不能迟到。(说话人的命令)

(2)be going + 动词不定式
1)这种结构表示主体现在打算在最近或将来要做某事。这种打算往往是事先考虑好的。例如:
My brother is going to learn English next year. 我哥哥准备明年学英语。
I am going to meet Tom at the station at six. 我六点钟要到火车站去接汤姆。
She is not going to be there. 她不会到那儿去的。
When are you going to finish your work? 你的工作什么时候做完?
He is going to stay a week. 他准备呆一星期。
We are going to call a meeting to discuss it. 我们准备开个会来讨论一下。
2)这种结构还可以表示说话人根据已有的迹象认为非常可能即将发生某事。例如:
Look at these black clouds?it is going to rain. 看这些乌云?要下雨了。
I think it is going to snow. 我看要下雪。
I am afraid I am going to have a bad cold. 恐怕我要得重感冒。
注意:
1)will 和be going to 都可以表示某种意愿。例如:
I won’t (am not going to) tell you my age. 我不(愿意)告诉你我的年龄。
be going to 和will在含义和用法上略有不同。Be going to往往表示事先经过考虑的打算;will多表示意愿,决心。有时不能互换。例如:
I have bought some bricks and I am going to build a kitchen with them.我买了些砖,我要用它们盖个厨房。(不能用will替换)
Can somebody help me? ?I will. 谁能帮我一些吗?―?我来。(不能用be going to替换)
2)be going to 可用于条件从句,表示单纯的将来;will则不能。例如:
If you are going to go to the cinema this evening, you’d better take your umbrella with you. 你若今晚去看电影,最好带着雨伞。

(3)be to + 动词原形,表示安排、命令或肯定将会发生的事情;在问句中表示征求意见。如:
You are not to smoke in this room. 你不许在这个房间里抽烟。
In future you are not to go out alone. 将来你不许一个人出去。
The worst is still to come. 最糟糕的还在后面呢。
Tomorrow is still to come. 明天过了还有明天。
(4)be about + 动词不定式。这种结构表示正要、即将发生的事情。例如:
Let’s go in. The class is about to begin. 咱们进去吧。马上开始上课了。
They are about to get married. 他们即将结婚。
My book is about to be published. 我的书即将出版。
一般将来时的关键是记住表示将来的几种句型及其用法。
练习:
用be going to 或will.填空:
1)What are you doing with that spade? ?I ___ (plant) some trees. (am going to plant)
2)This is a terribly heavy box. ?I ___ (help) you carry it. (will help)
3) I’ve left my watch upstairs. ?I ___ (go) and get it for you. (will go)
4) Who will post this letter for me? ?I ____. (will)
5) She has bought a length of cloth; she ____ (make) herself a dress. (is going to make)

10、将来进行时
(1)构成:shall/will be + 现在分词
(2)用法:将来进行时动词表示在将来某一段时间内将会发生的动作。
This time next week we shall be working in that factory. 下星期这时候,我们将在那个工厂劳动。
When I get up tomorrow morning, my mother will be getting breakfast for me. 当我明天早晨起床时,我妈妈将在为我准备早饭。
I will be seeing him next month. 我下个月将要见他。
Tomorrow we will be going to the village fair. 我们明天去赶集。
We will be taking our holiday at the seaside in July. 七月份我们要去海边度假。
一般将来时与将来进行时都表示将来,那么如何区别一般将来时和将来进行时呢?将来进行时不表示个人意愿,强调主观上感觉某事即将发生,并对这一事情有着期待,感情色彩较浓,强调动作。一般将来时主要是对某一事情即将发生做一个事实性的说明或陈述,强调事实或意愿。

翻译下列句子:
1)下月这个时候,我们将呆在南京了。
This time next month we shall be staying in Nanjing.
2)在今天下午的会议上,你们讨论这个计划吗?
Will you be discussing the plan at the meeting this afternoon?
3)你会见到我的兄弟吗?
Will you be seeing my brother?
4)下学期你教我们吗?
Will you be teaching us next term?
5)你来的时候,我们将在开会。
When you come we shall be having a meeting.
6)下周这个时候,我们将在考试。
This time next week we shall be taking our exams.

11、过去将来时
(1) 由should/would + 动词原形构成。第一人称用should; 第二、三人称用would。美国英语所有人称一律用would. should/would 的简略形式为’d, 如I’d, you’d; would not 和should not的简略形式分别为wouldn’t 和shouldn’t.
(2)过去将来时表示从过去某时间看将要发生的事情,多用在宾语从句中。还可以表示过去的倾向或过去经常发生的事情。如:
They asked me if I would go to Guangzhou soon. 他们问我是否很快要去广州。
She told me she would come again next week. 她和我说她下周还来。
I told him to leave immediately, but he wouldn’t. 我告诉他马上离开,但他不。
He’d play the violin when he was in low spirits. 他情绪低落的时候,就拉小提琴。
When I was in college, I would find a part-time job during the summer holidays every year to earn my tuition. 我上大学的时候,每年暑假都找份临时工挣学费。
(3)其他表示过去将来时的结构:
1)were/was going to + 动词原形,表示过去的安排、打算或确信某事会发生,多用于口语。如:
I told her I was going to see her that afternoon. 我告诉她我那天下午要去看她。
I was sure (that) they were going to do that. 我确信他们要做那件事。
2)were/was to + 动词原形,表示安排,命令或后来将要发生的事。如:
He didn’t know he was to become famous later on. 他不知道以后他会出名。
They were to receive salaries from the government. 他们将接受政府的工资。
She and I were to meet at an agreed place. 她和我将在一个约定的地方见面。
3)were/was about to + 动词原形,表示正要、即将发生的事。如:
Mrs. Brown was about to begin, but Jennie spoke first. 布朗夫人刚要开始,但是珍妮先说话了。
He was about to say something more, but then checked himself. 他正要再说点什么,却又打住了。
He waited until she was about to leave. 他一直等到她即将离开。
12、将来完成时
(1)构成:shall/will + have + 过去分词
(2)用法:将来完成时动词主要表示在将来的某一时刻或将来的某一时刻之前完成的动作,这一动作也可能继续进行。例如:
By seven o’clock this afternoon we shall have got to Shanghai if the train keeps good line. 如果火车运行正常,我们今天下午七点就到上海了。
Before bedtime Xiao Ming will have completed his work. 到上床睡觉的时候,小明会做完他的工作(或作业)。
By February next year this foreign expert will have been here on this job for five years. 到明年二月,这个外国专家在这儿做这项工作就满五年了。
By Sept. 2008 Beijing will have held/hosted the Olympic Games. 到2008年9月,北京将举行完了奥运会。

翻译练习:
1)七月份你们再来时,他们就搬进新房子里去了。
When you come again in July, they will have moved into a new house.
2)到下一个五一节,我们在一起的时间就很长了。
By next May Day we shall have been together for a long time.
3)我相信,在你到那儿之前,这些困难他已经解决了。
I’m sure he will have settled/solved the difficulties before you arrive there.
4)到明年七月,我就大学毕业了。
By July next year, I will have graduated from college.

二、关于动词时态的几点说明

1、一般不用进行时的动词,它们用一般现在时表示现在进行时
(1)表示心理状态的词:accept, agree, allow, believe, care, dislike, fear, forget, hate, know, like, love, mean, mind, need, prefer, realize, remember, respect, understand, want, wish等。还有 admit, decide, permit, promise, receive, refuse等。
I accept what you say. 我接受你说的话。
I don't agree to this proposal. 我不同意这个建议。
(2)感官动词和表示状态的动词一般不用进行时。系动词:如hear, look, notice, see, smell, sound, taste等词。表示状态的词:be, belong to, exist, have, remain, seem, stay等词。例如:
I see him now; he’s talking to a girl. 我看见他了,他正在和一个女孩说话。
The warships belong to the navy and the tanks belong to the army. 军舰属于海军,坦克属于陆军。
The tea tastes fresh. 这茶味道很新鲜。
It sounds strange, but it is true. 听起来很奇怪,但这是真的。
2、下列句型常用一般现在时表示现在进行时
Here/There+动词+名词主语:
Here comes the bus! 公共汽车来了。
There goes the bell. 铃声响了。
Here/There+代词主语+动词:
Here he comes! 他来了!
There he goes! 他走了!
在make sure (certain) 后面的从句常用现在时表示将来时:
There aren’t many seats left for the concert; you’d better make sure that you get one today. 这场音乐会剩下的座位不多了,你最好今天订妥一个位子。
I’m leaving now。 -Make sure you lock the window. 我现在走了。 你务必把窗户关上。

3、将来时常用的表达方式
(1)单纯将来时用shall/will+动词原形表示。如:
I shall be twenty years old next year. 明年我就二十岁了。
Tomorrow will be September 10th. 明天是九月十号。
(2)“be going to +动词原型 ”这种形式用于人时表示打算,意图,也表示说话者确信无疑;用于物时表示可能或必然性。
They are going to get married in July. 他们打算七月份结婚。
Mr. Brown says he is going to buy a new car next year. Brown 先生说他们打算明年买辆新车。
His wife is going to have a baby. 他妻子要生小孩子了。
There is going to be a storm. 将有一场暴风雨。
Look!It’s going to snow. 看,要下雪了。
(3)“be to +动词原形 ”表示命令,安排,疑问句中表示征求意见。例如:
You are to clean the window. 你要擦窗。
The President is to arrive in Rome at three o’clock this afternoon. 总统今天下午三点到达罗马。
Am I to set to work? 要着手工作吗?
Is he to leave/come, too。 要他也走/来吗?
(4)“be about to +动词原形 ”表示即刻就要发生的动作。例如:
They are about to go out when it begins to snow. 他们正出去的时候开始下雪了.
The ship is about to sail。 船要扬帆起航了。
(5)现在进行时可表示将来。主要是表示“来,去,留,住,开始,结束 ”等意义的动词,如:come, end, leave, return, go, start, set out, meet, open, die, arrive。
We are going to Paris on Friday. We are leaving from London Airport. 我们星期五离开巴黎,我们从伦敦机场出发。
The poor dog is dying. 那条可怜的狗快要死了。
The tragedy is ending/beginning. 悲剧就要结束了/开始了。

4、现在完成时的用法
现在完成时强调的是现在的结果或影响,是个现在时态,不与明确表示过去某个时间的状语连用;常与 already, ever, lately, just, now, recently, today, tonight, yet, this week, this year, for+时间名词,in the last three years, in the past three years, so far (到目前为止),up till now (直到现在), up to the present (直到现在) 等包括现在在内的时间状态语连用。例如:
Where have you been this year? 今年你去过哪里。
Up to the present, great changes have taken place. 到现在已经发生了巨大变化。
Did Mary come here for a visit? She has visited China twice since 1989.

5、过去完成时的用法
过去完成时表示动作发生在过去某个时间或动作之前。如果发生有两个动作都是在过去发生的,先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的用一般过去时:
It is five years since I left middle school.(以现在为依据) 我离开中学到现在已经有五年了。
It was five years since I had left middle school.(以过去为依据) 我离开中学到那时已经有五年了。
By the end of last month they had already made 25 million dollars. 到上月底他们已经挣了两千五百万美元了。
The film had been on for minutes when he arrived at the cinema. 电影已经开始几分钟了他才到电影院。

注意:动词 expect, hope, mean, plan, suppose, think的过去完成时表示过去未曾实现的想法、希望、打算或意图。例如:
They had hoped to be able to come and see me. 他们本希望能来看我的。
I had thought to meet her there. 我想过(或我本想)在那里见她。

6、时态的呼应
时态的呼应也叫时态的一致,是指在复合句中,某些从句(主要是宾语从句等名词性从句)的时态常受主句时态的影响,因而要注意主从句两部分的时态呼应。
(1)主句是现在时态或将来时时,从句可以用任何所需要的时态。
He says his father is/was/will be a teacher. 他说他父亲是(过去是,将来要做)一个教师。
They will tell you that they are living/lived/will live/have lived in shanghai. 他们会告诉你他们正住在上海/在上海住过/将住在上海/一直住在上海。
(2)主句是过去时态时,从句的时态要注意下列几点:
A. 从句与主句动作同时发生,从句须用一般过去时或过去进行时。
I thought he studied hard. 我认为他学习努力。
He told me his son was watching TV. 他告诉我他儿子在看电视。
B. 从句动作发生在主句动作之后,从句须用过去将来时。例如:
He said he would post the letter. 他说他将要寄这封信。
They did not know when they would go to the Great Wall. 他们不知道什么时候去参观长城。
C. 从句动作发生在主句动作之前,从句须用过去完成时。例如:
He said he had posted the letter。 他说已经把信发了。
They asked me whether I had been there before. 他们问我以前去没去过那里。
但是,如果从句有具体的过去时间状语,尽管从句动作发生在主句动作之前,有时仍用一般过去时。例如:
She told me her brother died in 1960. 她告诉我她哥哥1960年去世的。
They said they checked everything yesterday. 他们说昨天他们全部检查过了。
另外,从句说的是一般真理或客观事实,即使主句用过去时态,从句仍用一般现在时。例如:
The teacher told the pupils that the earth is round. 老师告诉学生们地球是圆的。
Somebody told me you are a writer. 有人告诉我你是个作家。
除了宾语从句外,其他名词性从句(主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)一般也要遵守这种时态呼应的规律。而状语从句和定语从句则是根据本身意思的需要选用适当的时态。例如:
He saw the boy whose mother is our teacher. 他见过那个他妈妈是我们老师的男孩。
It was not so hot yesterday as it is today. 昨天没有今天这样热。

三、几个常用时态的比较

1、一般现在时与现在进行时
(1)一般现在时用以说明客观事实,或用于强调动作的永久性、经常或反复性。而现在进行时强调动作正在进行,因此它表示动作含有暂时性(即动作的持续时间是有限的)和未完成性。
The writer writes children’s stories. 那位作家是写儿童小说的。(说明客观事实)
The writer is now writing a story. 那位作家现在正在编写一个故事。
She is kind. 她很善良。(指她一贯心地善良)
She is being kind. 她现在显得很善良。(表示暂时性,平时她并不善良)
Tom types his own letters. 汤姆自己用打印机打信。(说明经常性)
Tom is typing his own letters today. 汤姆今天自己正在用打印机打信(表示暂时性、未完成)
(2)有些动词,如:like, hate, believe, guess, know, mean, remember, hear, see, sound, seem等,不能用于进行时,即使表示说话时正在进行的动作也通常用一般现在时。如:
I know him. 我认识他。(不说:I am knowing him.)
Jenny likes this green coat. 珍妮喜欢这件绿大衣。(不说:Jenny is liking…)
某些动词既可用于一般现在时,又可用于现在进行时,但意义有所不同。试比较:
I feel (=think, believe) you are right/there’s something wrong. 我觉得(=认为、相信)你是对的/有点不对头。(这个意思不用进行时 )
I’m feeling cold. 我觉得冷。
What are you thinking about? 你在想些什么。
What do you think of the idea? 你认为这个主意怎样?
I think you’re right. 我认为你是正确的。
He is smelling the meat. 他正在闻肉。
The meat smells bad. 这肉有臭味了。
I see (=understand) what you mean. 我明白你的意思。
I see the fish now. 我看见那条鱼了。
I’m seeing (=consulting ) a doctor. 我正在看医生(即看病)。
I’m seeing (=visiting) a friend of mine. 我正在看一个朋友。
某些表示身体感觉的词(如 hurt, ache, feel等),用一般现在时和现在进行时没有多大差别,只是进行时更生动、更有感情色彩。例如:
How do you feel today? (or: How are you feeling today?) 你今天的感觉怎样。
My head is aching. (or: My head aches.) 我头疼。
I feel cold.=I’m feeling cold. 我觉得冷。
(3)一般现在时说明事实,一般不带感情色彩;现在进行时与always, often, frequently等词连用时带有感情色彩。例如:
He always asks questions. 他总是提问题。(无感情色彩)
He is always asking questions. 他老爱提问题。(表示强烈的感情色彩)
Don’t be complaining all the time. 别老是抱怨个不停。
She’s always blaming others. 她总是在埋怨别人。

2、一般过去时与现在完成时
(1)一般过去时只是单纯说明过去的情况,和现在不发生联系,它可以确定的表示过去的时间状语连用。而现在完成时表示某一完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,强调的是现在的情况,所以它不能和具体的表示过去的时间状语连用。如:
We have visited a power station. 我们参观了发电站。(现在对电站有所了解)
We visited a power station last week. 上周我们参观了发电站。(只说明事实)
I have lost my pen. 我把钢笔丢了。(还没有找到)
She lost her pen yesterday. 她昨天把钢笔丢了。(现在找到与否,没有说明)
(2)有些时间状语,如 this morning, tonight, this month等,既可以用于一般过去时,也可以用于完成时,但所表达的意义有所不同。用于现在完成时表示包括“现在 ”而用于一般过去时则与“现在”无关。例如:
I have read this book this April. 我今年四月份看过这本书。(讲话时仍是四月)
I read this book this April. 我今年四月份看过这本书。(讲话时四月已过)
I have written two letters this morning. 今天上午我写了两封信。(讲话时仍是上午)
I wrote two letters this morning. 今天上午我写了两封信。(讲话时是下午或晚上)

3、一般过去时与过去进行时
一般过去时表示过去发生的事情,往往表示动作已结束;而过去进行时侧重动作正在进行、未完成。试比较:
Mary wrote a letter to her friend last night. 玛丽昨晚给她的朋友写了封信。(信写完了)
Mary was writing a letter to her friend last night. 玛丽昨晚在给她的朋友写信。(信不一定写完)
I read a novel last night. 昨天晚上我看了一本小说。(指已经看完了)
I was reading a novel last night. 昨天晚上我在看小说。(指看了一些)
I often went swimming while I was living in Qingdao. 我住在青岛的时候经常去游泳。
I was running downstairs when I saw her. 我正往楼下跑的时候看见了她。
I ran downstairs and found her gone. 我跑下楼梯,发现她走了。

4、一般过去时和过去完成时
(1)一般过去时表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,而过去完成时表示在过去某一动作发生在另一动作之前。试比较:
The class had already begun when I came to school. 我来到学校时,已经开始上课。
He had gone home before I got to his office. 我到他办公室以前,他已回家了。
(2)有after或before引导的时间状语从句的复合句中,由于从句动作和主句动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,所以可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时:
He called on me soon after he had returned. 他回来不久便拜访我。也可以说:He called on me soon after he returned.
The train had left before I got to the station. 我到车站时,火车已经开走了。也可以说:The train left before I got to the station。
(3)描述一连串的过去动作,无需用过去完成时,例如:
He stood up, took his bag, put on his hat, left the room and went away. 他站起来,拿起书包,戴上帽子,离开房间走了。
She looked around but saw nothing. 她环顾四周,但是什么也没有看见。
He came in and said hello to everyone. 他进来向每一个人问好。
由于汉语与英语表达时态的方式不同,中国人在学习和应用英语时经常犯时态错误,尤其是在写信、写电子邮件、写记叙文时。常见的时态错误类型有:时态不对应;通篇须用几种时态时用一种时态;时态混用或串用(如在描写过去的经历时,有时用现在时);不用进行时。我们如果在日常口头交际中犯点时态错误,这在所难免,也可以理解。但是,在正式场合,如正式写作中,就不能允许出现时态错误,因为这是英语语法的基础。我们学习时态的目的,主要在于应用。因此,在使用英语,尤其是在写作时,一定要有时态意识,长此以往就能养成正确使用时态的习惯。

四.、助动词和情态动词

第一部分 助动词
汉语中只有助词,而没有助动词。这又是英汉两种语言的一大差别。英语的助动词,就是起辅助作用的动词,本身没有独立的词义,不能单独做谓语,在句子中只起语法作用,和实意动词一起构成谓语(叫复合谓语),表达否定,疑问,时态,语态和其他语法关系。其基本形式和作用如下表:
原形 现在式 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 作用
Be Am, is, are Was, were Been Being 构成各种进行时态和被动语态
Have Has, have Had —— —— 构成各种完成时态
do Does, do Did —— —— 构成疑问句和否定句、加强语气,代替前面相同的动词
Shall —— Should —— —— 构成各种将来时态
Will —— would —— ——

(一)助动词be的用法
1、跟现在分词构成各种进行时态:
They are playing war games with toy guns and toy tanks. 他们正在用玩具枪和玩具坦克玩战争游戏。
We were playing video games on TV last night. 昨晚我们在电视上玩电子游戏。
2、跟过去分词构成被动语态:
He’s not respected by the press. 他们不受报界的尊重。
We were taught how to use a computer last year. 去年教过我们怎样用计算机。

(二)助动词have的用法
have后面跟过去分词构成各种完成时态:
We’ve known each other since three years ago. 我们从三年前就认识了。
He’s been to Shanghai. 他去过上海。

(三)助动词do的用法
1、帮助构成实意动词一般现在时和一般过去时的疑问式和否定式:
Do you know John? 你认识约翰吗?
Mary didn’t come to see me yesterday. 玛丽昨天没来看我。
You like this picture, don’t you? 你喜欢这张画,不是吗?

2、代替前面已经提到过的动词,避免重复:
Do you smoke? ?Yes, I do. 你抽烟吗?-是的,我抽。
I smoke. So does he. 我抽烟。他也抽。
He doesn’t like it. Neither do I. 他不喜欢,我也不。
They went swimming yesterday. So did we. 他们昨天去游泳了。我们也去了。

3、帮助加强谓语动词的语气:
I do like you. 我真的喜欢你。
She/He does like you. 她/他确实喜欢你。
She/They/We did go swimming yesterday. 她/他们/我们昨天确实去游泳了。
If you do know, answer me in a loud voice so that all may hear. 如果你的确知道,就大声回答我,以便大家都能听见。
be, have, do 都能做实意动词用:
These are computers. 这些是计算机。
We’re having breakfast. 我们正在吃早饭。
I did some washing last night. 我昨晚洗了衣服。

(四)助动词shall和will的用法
1、助动词shall/will构成一般将来时;should/would构成过去将来时
We shall/will be rich, if we succeed. 我们将很富有,如果我们成功的话。
They will be rich, if they succeed. 他们将很富有,如果他们成功的话。
They said they would be rich, if they succeeded. 他们说他们将很富有,如果他们成功的话。
2、shall 用在第一、三人称作主语的疑问句中,来征求意见,表示“要不要……”
Shall I go now? 要我现在就走吗?
Shall we invite her, too? 我们也邀请她吗?
Shall the house be insured against fire? 要给房子保火险吗?
Shall the reporters wait outside or what? 要记者们在外面等还是怎样?
3、shall 用于所有人称,表示说话人的决心、保证、许诺、威胁、警告、命令等强烈的感情。例如:
You shall have an answer by tomorrow. 到了明天,你会得到答复的。
If he’s good, he shall have a new watch for Christmas. 如果他表现好,在圣诞节就会得到一块新表。
You shall suffer for this. 你会为这事吃苦头/付出代价的!
I don’t want to be hard on them; they shan’t be pressed. 我不想难为他们;不会过于逼迫他们的。
They hope to undermine our unity; they shall fail. 他们希望破坏我们的团结:他们不会成功的。
If you children don’t do as I tell you, you shan’t go to the party. 你们小孩要是不听话,就不让你们参加晚会。
As a man sows, so he shall reap. 善有善报,恶有恶报。(谚语)
Then you shall come; and you will come too, Ruth, won’t you? 那你得来;Ruth,你也来好吗?
4、would 可以表示过去的习惯,类似used to:
He would come to see me on Sunday when he was here. 他在这里的时候,星期天就来看我。
The dog would lie there in the sun all afternoon. 那只狗常常整个下午躺在那里的太阳底下。
When we were children, we would go skating every winter. 小的时候,每年冬天我们都去滑冰。
5、will可以表示“愿意、肯、会、固执”等意义,而非将来:
I meant to reason with you, but you won’t reason. 我打算和你讲理,但是你就是不讲理。
I will pay you for it. 我会付给你钱买下它的。
Go where you will. 到你愿意去的地方。
She won’t so much as look at David. 她连看都不看一眼大卫。
We’re going on a climbing trip. Come if you will. 我们要去爬山。你愿意的话就跟我们一起来。
6、will可以表示倾向、习惯(总是会,老是等意思),在否定句中可以表示“不肯、不能”等意思:
Boys will be boys. 男孩子总归是男孩子。
A wise man changes his mind; a fool never will. 聪明人会改变自己的思想,而傻子却不会。
Sometimes the cat will lie there all morning. 有时候猫会整个下午躺在那里。
Oil and water will not mix. 油和水是不会混合在一起的。
She will sit there for hours, waiting for her son to come back. 她总是在那里坐上好几个小时,等她儿子回来。
This machine won’t work. 这台机器不工作了/坏了。
These things will happen. 这样的事情总是会发生的。

第二部分 情态动词
情态动词有一定的意义,表示人的看法和态度,不表示动作或状态,因而不能单独做谓语,必须和实意动词或系动词的原形一起构成谓语,没有人称和数的变化。把情态动词放在句首、句尾用问号便构成疑问句;在其后加上not或never等否定词就构成否定句。如:
My mother can drive. 我妈会开车。
My mother can’t drive. 我妈不会开车。
Can your mother drive? 你妈会开车吗?
Can’t your mother drive? 你妈不会开车吗?
You needn’t look at me like that. 你不必那样瞧着我。

常用的情态动词有can, could; may, might; must; should; need; dare; ought to 等。
(一)can/could 的用法
1、表示具备某种“能力”,但不一定做事情。仅仅表示有能力而已。can表示现在;could表示过去。如:
The nine-year old boy can swim across the river. 那个九岁的男孩能游过那条河。
Can you swim across the river? 你能游过那条河吗?
I could do such things then, but I can’t now. 我那时候能做这样的事情,但现在不能了。
We couldn’t get the truck to start. 我们发动不了那辆卡车。
2、表示“请求”(疑问句中)、“允许”。Could 比 Can 委婉;两者都指现在。回答一律用 can 或 cannot, 也可以用mustn’t. 如:
Can /could I smoke here? 我可以在这里抽烟吗?
Yes, you can. 是的,你可以。
No, you cannot smoke here. 你不能在这里抽烟。
You can go now. 你现在可以走了。
Could you lend me $55? 你能借给我55美圆吗?
Yes, of course. 当然可以。
No, I cannot/I’m sorry I cannot. 不,不行/对不起,恐怕不行。
Could you tell me where John is? 你能告诉我约翰在哪儿吗?
3、表示“可能性”。 但是并不牵涉到是否真会发生:都可以表示现在和将来,只是could的语气更加不肯定。如
That can/could be very awkward. 那可就太尴尬了。
Can/Could it be true? 那会/可能是真的。
That can’t/couldn’t be true. 那不可能是真的。
Will you answer the phone? It could be your mother. 你去接电话好吗?可能是你妈妈。
What can/could they be doing? 他们可能会在干吗呢?
Could/Can they be chatting in his office? 他们可能在他办公室里聊天吗?
No, they can’t/couldn’t be doing that now. 不, 现在他们不可能在做那事。

(二)may/might 的用法
1、表示允许或请求允许;might语气更礼貌:
May I turn on the TV? 我可以把电视打开吗?
You may go home now. 你现在可以回家了。
She asked if she might have my bike. 她问是否可以借用我的自行车。
He told me I might go and see him any time. 他和我说我可在任何时候去见他。
can/could和may/might 都可以表示允许和请求允许。can最直截了当;could 礼貌客气;may 既尊重又婉转礼貌;might 带者太多的虚礼,所以很少使用。如:
直截了当 Can I Ask you for help?
礼貌客气 Could i
尊重婉转 May i
(虚礼)尊重婉转 Might i
对所有这些问句的肯定回答:
Yes, of course. Yes, you can/may.
对所有这些问句的否定回答:
No, you can’t/may not /mustn’t /I’m afraid not.
2、表示可能性,是“也许”之意。这时may和might无时间上的差别,只是might在语气上更不肯定一些。如:
You may/might have some fever. 你也许发烧了。He said that the news might be true. 他说这消息可能是真的。
They may/might be having a bath. 他们也许正在洗澡。
We may be buying a new house. 我们也许要买个新房子。
表示可能性时,may/might不用于疑问句,可用can/could或别的说法。如:
Is it likely to rain, do you think? 会下雨吗,你认为?(不说May it rain?)
Can/could they be having a bath? 他们可能正在洗澡吗?

(三)must的用法
1、表示义务、命令或劝告,是“必须”之意。对自己、对别人均可:
We must take this seriously. 我们必须严肃对待这事。
You must tell me the truth. 你必须和我说实话。
Patients must use medicine according to the doctor’s orders. 病人用药必须遵医嘱。
在回答由must引起的问题时,如果是否定回答,多用needn’t 或 don’t have to,表示“不必、没必要”;而mustn’t表示“绝对不行、不可以”的意思,有时用来回答can或may开头的问句,表示口气很强的不允许:
Must the ladies wear dresses? No, they don’t have to/they needn’t. 女士们必须着连衣裙吗?不,不必。
Can/May I come in? No, you can’t/mustn’t. 可以进来吗?不行/绝对不行。
must 仅用于表示现在和未来。其他时态用have to。但在间接引语中可用must表示过去:
I had to leave early because I wasn’t feeling well. 我不得不早点离开,因为我觉得不舒服。
You’ll have to take care of the child. 你将不得不照顾这个孩子。
She has had to work over ten hours a day. 她一直不得不每天工作十几个小时。
They decided they must stop smoking. 他们决定他们必须戒烟。
He asked me if he must leave at once and I told him he didn’t have to. 他问我是否他必须马上离开,我告诉他不必。
2、表示推测,是“肯定、一定”之意。此时,must只用于肯定句。在否定句或疑问句中,用can/could:
There must be a mistake. 准是弄错了。
Can/Could there be a mistake 可能会有错吗?
There can’t/couldn’t be a mistake. 不可能会有错吗?
He must be over sixty now. 他肯定六十多岁了。
He can’t/couldn’t be sixty now. 他现在不会是六十岁。
Can/Could he be over sixty now? 他现在会有六十多岁吗?
They must be watching the news now. 他们这会儿肯定在看新闻。
They can’t/couldn’t be watching the news now. 他们这会儿不可能在看新闻。
Can/Could they be watching the news now? 他们这会儿可能在看新闻吗?
我们先对表示“推测”的表达法作一个总结:
(1)表示对现在和将来状况的推测:must 一定,may 可能,might 也许,can’t 不可能。从“一定”到“不可能”,可能性逐渐降低。
(2)对已经过去的情况的推测:must, may, might, can’t/couldn’t 这些词后面分别加上have + 过去分词,表示“一定…”,“可能…”, “也许…”,“不可能…”。从“一定”到“不可能”,可能性逐渐降低。

(四)need的用法
作为情态动词,need一般只用于否定句和疑问句中。
You needn’t try to explain. 你不需要解释。
She needn’t come tomorrow. 她明天不必来。
Need we stay here this evening? 今晚我们需要在这儿住下来吗?
Need 作为实意动词比作为情态动词常用的多。实意动词need 可用在所有句型中。
She needs to come tomorrow. 明天她需要来。
You don’t need any help from others. 你不需要别人的任何帮助。
He doesn’t need to borrow money. 他不需要借钱。
Do they need this? 他们需要这个吗?
Plants need sun light in order to grow. 植物需要阳光才能生长。
You don’t need to work so hard. 你不需要这么样地努力工作。
Your shoes need cleaning/to be cleaned. 你的鞋子需要清洁。
The job doesn’t need much attention or time. 这份工作很省心省事。
What he needs is a good beating. He needs a good beating. 需要好好揍他一顿。

(五)dare的用法
情态动词dare通常用于疑问句,否定句和条件状语从句中,表示“敢”的意思:
Dare he swim across the river? 他敢游过这条河吗?
He dare not come to see me. 他不敢来见我。
I dare not say so. 我不敢这样说。
She dare not go out of the house. 她不敢走出房间。
How dare you be so rude! 你竟敢如此无礼!
If you dare speak to me like this again, you’ll be sorry. 如果你胆敢再和我那样说话,你会感到遗憾的。
实际上,在现代英语中,dare往往用做实意动词:
Do you dare to ask her? 你敢问她吗?
He didn’t dare to go. 他不敢去。
I would never dare to jump down from the wall. 我永远也不敢从那堵墙上跳下来。
Does anyone dare to call me a liar? 有谁敢说我是个说谎者吗?

(六)should/ought to的用法
两者大多数情况下可以互换。
1、表示道义上的责任,义务或要求,有时表示劝告。ought to的否定式为ought not to /oughtn’t to。如:
You ought to /should pay more attention to what your lawyer says. 你应该更多的注意你律师的话。
They shouldn’t allow parking here. The street is too narrow. 这里不应该允许停车,街道太窄了。
This word is spelt wrongly. There should be another “s”.
这个词拼写错了,还应该有一个 “s”。
I should go slowly here. It’s a built-up area. 这里我应该慢点儿走。这个地区建筑物多。
2. 表示推测和可能性,是“应该”之意。 表示对现在和将来的推测。
You ought not to/shouldn’t be sleeping now. It’s already eight o’clock. 你不该还在睡觉,都已经八点了。
This pen ought to /should be yours. 这支笔应该是你的。
If the train is up to time, John should/ought to be here any minute now. 如果火车晚点的话,JOHN现在马上就应该到了。
3、“should/ought to have+过去分词”表示对过去的推测,意 思 是“应该已经”。有时表示“应该做而没有做”,是“本应该”的意思;“should not/ought not to have+过去分词”表示“做了不应该做的事情”,是“本不该”的意思,因而它们都含有责备的语气:
He began two hours ago. He ought to have finished filling in the forms now. 两个钟头前他就开始了,现在应该填完那些表格了。
One should have been asleep and the other on watch. 本应该一个睡觉,另一个站岗。.
You should not have asked him for help. 你本不应该向他求助。
4、表示讲话人惊奇,失望,愤怒等感情:
What’s happened to that money? How should I know? 那些钱怎么了?-我怎么知道?
It’s strange that he should have lost his temper for such trivial things as that. 真奇怪,他竟然为这么小的事情发脾气。
Why should I believe you? 我为什么要相信你?

第三部分“情态动词+have+ done”的含义
1、Must have done的含义。“must have+过去分词”表示对过去的推测,意思是“一定已经,想必已经,准是已经….”,只用于肯定句中。例如:
The streets are wet. It must have rained. 街道是湿的,准是下雨了。 
He must have been drinking beer. 他肯定一直喝啤酒来着。
若要表示否定,要用“can’t/couldn’t+ have+过去分词”,意 思 是“不可能”:
The money can’t have been lost there. 钱不可能是在那儿丢的。
2、 May/might have done 的含义。“may/might have+过去分词”表示对过去的推测,意思是“也许已经┅,可能已经…”。用于肯定或否定句中。疑问句中用can或could. “might(不是may)have+过去分词”也表示“本来可以…”的意思,含有责备的口气,用来批评人。例如:
He may have gone to bed. 他可能已经上床睡觉了。
She might not have settled the problem. 她可能尚未解决那个问题。
You might have told me earlier. 你本可以早点告诉我的。(埋怨责备)
Don’t do that again. You might have been fired. 别那么干了,会把你解雇的。(责备,警告)
You might have succeeded if you had tried. 假如你尝试过,或许已经成功了。(虚拟语气,不满)
3、needn’t have done的含义。“needn’t+ have+过去分词”表示“作了不必做或不需要做的事”。 可译成“大可不必”,“本来不需要”。例如:
I needn’t have borrowed the money yesterday. 昨天我根本不需要借钱的。(实际上已经借了)
You needn't have come so early. 你不必那么早来嘛。
4、can/could have done:用来谈过去的情况
(1)在疑问句、否定句中,表示怀疑和不可能,这时它们没有时间上的差别,只是could的语气更弱一些:
Who could have taken them? 谁会把它们拿走了呢?
Where can he have gone? 他可能到哪儿去了呢?
He can’t have taken it home. 他不可能是带回家去了。
She couldn’t have left so soon. 她不可能这么快就走了。
I don’t see how I could have done otherwise. 我看不出我当时还有别的做法。
Who could have supposed you were going to do such a thing? 谁会想到你会做出这样的事情。
Nobody could have foreseen such a calamity. 这样的灾祸谁也不会预想到。
(2)could have done(但不是can)在肯定句中,表示“那时本来可以…;差点就要…”,有时用来进行婉转地批评(与might同意,但语气更强一些):
We could have solved the problem in a more reasonable fashion. 这个问题我们本来是可以更合理得解决的。
He could have told her, but he did not choose to. 他本来可以告诉她的,但他不愿这样做。
When she heard the news, she could have cried. 听了这消息,她简直要哭出来了。
I could have died laughing. 我简直要笑死了。
You could have been more considerate. 你其实可以想的更周到一些。
We could have started a little earlier. 我们其实可以更早一些动身的。
The result could have been better. 结果本可以更好一些。
5、should/ought to have done的含义。 “should/ought to have+过去分词”表示“过去应该做谋事却没有做”;“should not/ought not to have+过去分词”表示“做了不应该做的事”。含有责备或遗憾的意思。例如:
You shouldn’t /oughtn’t to have come here alone at such a late hour. 你这么晚的时候本不一该一个人来这里的。(实际是一个人来的)
She should/ought to have gone there alone. 她本该一个人去那里的。(实际上不是) 
You should have come here ten minutes earlier. 你本应该早10分钟来才是。
The boy shouldn’t have been playing the piano. 那孩子不应该一直在弹钢琴。
6、might, may, must表示推测时的区别: may,might, must可表示 推 测“可能”.根据表示可能性的大小,我们把这三个词排列为:might<may<must(或许→可能→肯定)。例如:
It might rain tomorrow. (将来)明天可能下雨。
They might be watching TV now. (现在)他们可能正在看电视。
Jane might have visited the Summer Palace last year. (过去)去年珍妮可能去过颐和园。
He may have something important to do. (现在)他可能有更重要的事要做。
They may have been to Shanghai last summer. (过去)去年夏天他们可能去过上海。
There must be something wrong with him. (现在)他肯定出问题了。
He must have made a mistake. (过去)他一定是犯了个错误。

第四部分 几个用法的区别
1、 can 和be able to的区别。can在表示“能力”时与be able to同义。但是can的时态形式不如be able to多。在一般将来时和现在完成时中只能用be able to。如:
She will be able to dance in a week. 她再过一星期就会跳舞了。
Nobody has ever been able to do it. 从来没有人能够做这事。
在过去时中,could表示具备某种能力,但不一定做事;而was able to表示努力设法去做谋事,成功后说明有能力,相当managed to do或succeeded in doing。这时,could和was able to是不能互换的。例如:
When he was a boy, he could swim across the river in fifteen minutes. 他小时侯,15分钟就能游过那河。(could表示能力,但不一定这么做)
He was able to swim across the river in fifteen minutes last week.
=He managed to swim across the river in fifteen minutes last week.
=He succeeded in swimming across the river in fifteen minutes last week.
上周他15分钟就游过了那河。(was able to表示真这样做了,而且成功了。这里不能用could)
2、must与 have to的比较。 Must 强调主观意志,也就是说,必要性来自说话者的主观意志。 have to 强调客观因素。例如:
He must stop smoking. 他必须戒烟。(说话人认为他必须)
This is an awful film. ?We really must go. 这部电影糟透了-我们一定要离开这里。(说话人认为必须)
You have to go and see the boss. 你一定得去见见老板。(客观因素)
Catholics have to go to church on Sundays. 天主教徒星期天必须去做礼拜。(客观因素,如教规等 )

注意:must not表示“绝对不可”; don’t have to(或 haven’t got to )表示“不必,没必要”,两者意思极为不同。英国英语中常用needn’t来代替 haven’t got to 或don’t have to,如:
You mustn’t tell Jenny. =Don’t tell Jenny. 你一定不要告诉珍妮。
You don’t have to tell Jenny. =You can if you like but it isn’t necessary. 你不必非要告诉珍妮。

3、need 作为情态动词与行为动词的区别。作为情态动词,need 无过去式和将来时,故用had to, will have to替代,主要用在否定句、疑问句、条件句中,意思是“有必要”。例如:
He need not come at once. 他不必马上就来。
If you need go there, please tell me now. 如果你需要去那儿,请告诉我。
Need he come at once? 他必须马上回来吗?
(回答要用must, have to, ought to, should等。例如:Need he come at once? Yes, he must/ought to /should/has to. No, he needn’t /doesn’t have to /mustn’t.)needn’t have done表示“本来不必做某事而实际上已经做了”。例如:
We needn’t have waited for him. 我们本来不必等他的。(实际上已等他了)
用作实义动词时,need可用于肯定句、 否定句和疑问句,是“需要”之意。如:
You need to wash your hands. 你需要洗手。
Does he need to take the medicine four times a day? 他需要每日服药四次吗?
We didn’t need to see him at all. 我们根本不必要看他(实际上也没去看他,请比较needn’t have done的用法)
need做实义动词时,后面的宾语如果是动名词,用主动形式表示被动意义,如果是不定式的被动形式,来表示被动意义。类似need的这种用法,还有require, want等。例如:
The dinning room needs cleaning every day. =The dinning room needs to be cleaned every day. 食堂需要天天打扫。
My shoes need repairing. = My shoes need to be repaired. 我的鞋需要修理。
4、would与 used to 的区别 .would 可表示反复发生的动作或某种倾向。used to表示过去的习惯动作或状态,强调现在已不存在。例如:
She used to work into the night. 过去她常工作到深夜。(现在不了)
She would work into the might. 以前她常工作到深夜。(不表示现在不了)
People used to think that the sun went round the earth. 以前人们总认为太阳是围绕地球转的。(现在不这样认为了)
I used to smoke quite a lot, but I have given it up. 我过去抽烟很凶,现在戒了。
情态动词的重点和难点是:情态动词之间的区别;表示“推测”的表达方式;以及“情态动词+have+过去分词”的含义。

五、被动语态
(一)简介
在英语中,语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和谓语的关系。英语动词有两种语态,即主动语态和被动语态。主动语态(active voice) 表示主语是动作的执行者;被动语态(passive voice)表示主语是动作的承受者。如:
Saddam is being tried. 萨达姆正在接受审判。
The Iraqi government is trying Saddam. 伊拉克政府正在审判萨达姆。
More and more people use computers now.(主动语态)
Computers are more and more widely used now.(被动语态)
English is spoken all over the world. (被动语态)

(二)英汉两种语言在表达被动方式上的差异
汉语表达被动语态非常简单明了,用“被”“遭”“受”等词来表示,如“被捕”、“被杀”、“受到凌辱”等。而英语表达被动的方式也不复杂,用“助动词be+动词的过去分词”表示。其中助动词be有人称、数量和时态的变化,而这正是英语被动语态的难点。

(三)被动语态的构成
被动语态由“be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。这里要强调一定是及物动词的过去分词,因为不及物动词不能带宾语,也就不可能有被动语态。英语主动语态有16个时态;被动语态常用的有8个,以give为例说明如下:
时态 动词形式
一般现在时 Am/is/are given
一般过去时 Was/were given
一般将来时 Shall/will be given
现在进行时 Am/is/are being given
过去进行时 Was/were being given
过去将来时 Should/would be given
现在完成时 Has/have been given
过去完成时 Had been given
被动语态的疑问句是将第一个助动词移到主语之前、句末用问号;否定式是在第一个助动词后加not或never等其他否定词、句末用句号。如:
“During the interview, were you asked questions in English?” “No, I wasn’t asked questions in English.” “面试的时候,用英语问你问题了吗?”“没有,没有用英语问我问题。”
The origin of the universe will probably never be explained. 宇宙的起源大概永远也不会被解释清楚。
Is the restaurant being decorated? 那家餐馆正在装修吗?
The restaurant is not being decorated. In the fact the restaurant has never been decorated。 那家餐馆没有在装修。实际上,那家餐馆从来没有装修过。

(四)被动语态的用法
1、不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者。换个说法,有一件事情不知道是谁干的或者不想说出是谁干的,这时就用被动语态。例如:
I felt a littlie nervous when I was being interviewed. 我接受面试的时候,有点紧张。
These fighters are imported from Russia. 这些战斗机是从俄国进口的。
That place has been turned into a swimming pool. 那个地方已被变成游泳池。
2、说话或发表意见时,为了显得客观公正,也常用被动语态
He’s said/believed/reported to be in the U. S. A. 据说/据信/据报道他在美国。

还有下列常用句型(that后面跟句子):
It is said that……. 据说
It is reported that……. 据报道
It is hoped that……. 希望
It is believed that……. 人们相信
It is announced that……. 据宣布
it is (well) known that……. 众所周知
It has been decided that……. 已经决定
It is supposed that……. 人们认为
It is suggested that……. 有人建议
It must be remembered that……. 务必记住
It is taken for granted that……. 被视为当然

(五)主动句变被动句的注意事项
一是时态不能改变;二是变为被动语态后,谓语动词要和被动语态的主语在人称、数上保持一致。还要作如下变动:把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语;主动语态的主语放在by的后面,组成介词短语,再把这个介词短语放在被动语态的谓语动词之后。在动作的执行者无须说明或不必要强调时,by短语可以省略。例如:
They will open a new supermarket there soon. 他们很快将在那里开办个新超市。
A new supermarket will be opened there soon. 一个新超市不久将在那里开办。
The doctor gave two lectures in English. 那位医生用英语讲了两次课。
Two lectures were given by the doctor in English. 由那位医生用英语讲了两次课。
Somebody has warned us to be careful of rats. 有人警告我们要当心老鼠。
We have been warned to be careful of rats. 我们受到警告,要当心老鼠。
如果主动语态有两个宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语),变为被动语态时,可将其中任何一个宾语变为主语,另一个不变。但较常见的是将间接宾语变为被动语态的主语。
The reporters asked the president some questions. 记者们问了总统一些问题。
The president was asked some questions by the reporters. ( 变间接宾语为主语)
Some questions were asked the president by the reporters. (变直接宾语为主语)
We have given him a job. 我们已给了他一个工作。
He has been given a job. (变间接宾语为主语)
A job has been given (to) him. (变直接宾语为主语)

(六)含有情态动词的被动语态
句中含有情态动词时,其被动语态的结构是:情态动词+be+过去分词:
The timetable can be changed any time. 时间表随时可以改变。
This book may not be taken out of the reading room. 这本书不允许带出阅览室。
This dictionary must be taken good care of. 这本词典必须保管好。

(七)不能用于被动语态的动词
1、不及物动词不能用于被动语态,因为它们没有宾语。
2、表示状态而不是动作的及物动词,如 break out, belong to, cost, deserve, fit, have ( 有、使),hold (盛下、装下),lack, resemble, suit, take part in, take place, want, wish等动词不能变为被动语态。例如:
Everybody wanted Doris to be the manager. 大家都想让多里斯来当经理.
We like everybody to say what they think. 我们喜欢让人人都说出他们的看法。
Do you wish me to stay? 你希望我留下吗?
Will you help me (to) do the work? 你可以帮助我做干活吗?
The war broke out in 1937. 战争爆发在1937年。
This car belongs to me. 这车是属于我的。
He has a good job. 他有个好工作。(不说A good job is had by him.)
They have a large house. 他们有所大房子。
I’ll have him come early. 我要让他早来。
Though I like the dress, it doesn’t fit me. 尽管我喜欢那件连衣裙,但穿着不合适。(不说Though the dress is liked by me, I’m not fitted by the dress.)
We lack manpower at the moment. 我们现在缺少人手。(不说Manpower is lacked by us at the moment.)
My computer cost me seven hundred and ninety dollars. 我花了790美元买这台计算机。
She resembles her father. 她像她父亲。(不说her father is resembled by her.)
3、短语动词中有些用于被动结构,有些不可以。但没有规律可循,只能个别掌握:
I was very well looked after when I was working there. 我在那里工作的时候,得到很好的照顾。
An overpass is being put up at the corner of the street. 在那条街的拐角处正在建起一个过街天桥。
Everybody agreed with me. 大家都同意我的意见。(不能说 I was agreed with by everybody.)
I walked into the house. 我走进房子。(不能说The house was walked into.)
I broke into the house. 我破门而入那栋房子。(却可以说The house was broken into by me.)
4、反身代词和each other, one another作宾语时不能变为被动。例如:
They acknowledged themselves to be defeated. 他们承认他们自己被击败了。
She praised herself. 她自我表扬。
He ruined himself. 他毁了自己。
5、下列及物动词有特殊的宾语,也不能变为被动语态:
The police officer shouted his loudest to stop the car. 警官用最大的声音喊叫,想叫住那辆车。
The famous actress breathed her last. 那位著名的女影星咽气了。
She nodded her approval. 她点头同意。
I smiled my thanks. 我微笑致谢。
He wishes to be somebody. 他想成个人物。
He enjoys taking pictures. 他喜欢摄影。
Keep silence, please. 请保持安静。
They usually take a walk after supper. 他们通常晚饭后散步。
(八)关于被动语态的几点说明
1、有些动词形式上是主动,意义上是被动。例如:
School begins in September. 学校九月份开学。
The library doesn’t open on Sunday. 图书馆星期天不开放。
The machine runs well. 这台机器容易操作。
My pen writes well. 我的钢笔好使。
The cloth washes well. 这料子耐洗。
The dictionary sells well. 这词典销路很好。
The book hardly sells. 这书买不出去。
The door will not shut/lock. 门关/锁不上。
Am I to blame? 我该受责备吗?
The house is to let. 房子要出租。
The story is interesting to read. 这故事读起来很有趣。
The film is worth seeing. 这片子值得一看。
Your shirt needs washing. 你的衬衫该洗了。
2、make, see, watch, hear, notice, feel等使役动词和感官动词的宾语后面可以接不带to的不定式作宾补。但在被动语态中,不定式符号to必须补上。例如:
They made him go. 他们让他去。
He was made to go. 他被要求去了。
I heard him say good-bye to his friends. 我听见他向他的朋友说再见。
He was heard to say good-bye to his friends. 有人听到他向他的朋友说再见。
3、除助动词be外,动词get有时也可跟过去分词构成被动语态,是比较口语化的一种被动语态。这种结构中很少用by短语。例如:
I got lost in the huge market. 在那个巨大的市场中我迷失了方向。
You might get killed/hurt. 你会送命/受伤的。
In the end this story got translated into English. 这故事最后被译成了英文。
His car got damaged in a road accident. 他的车在交通事故中被毁了。
4、“have/get+宾语+过去分词”这个句型也表达了一种被动的意思。如:
I’ll have the bike repaired in no time. 我一会就把自行车修好。
I had my wallet stolen/lost last Sunday when I was shopping. 上星期天买东西的时候我的钱夹被盗。
He got his leg broken when playing football. 踢足球的时候他把腿弄断了。
I bought these books at a discount and had two hundred dollars saved. 我打折买了这些书,省了两百美元。
5、在need, want, require后面,主动的-ing形式表达被动的意思:
My watch needs cleaning. (=…needs to be cleaned) 我的表需要清洗。
Your garden needs watering. (=…to be watered) 你的花园需要浇水。
Does your suit require pressing, sir? 先生,您的衣服要烫吗?
The car wants servicing. 这汽车要检修。

(九)练习
1、将下列句子变成被动语态:[主要步骤是:把原句的宾语变成主语(代词宾格要变成主格);把原句的谓语动词变成被动形式(注意:时态不变,新谓语动词与新主语要一致,疑问句要注意助动词的转换)。复合句中如有可能主句和从句都要变成被动语态。]
1)He gave me a present.
I was given a present by him.
2)My sister made the soup.
The soup was made by my sister.
3)The workers could not find the manager anywhere in the factory.
The manager could not be found anywhere in the factory by the workers.
4)The army engineers and soldiers have built a bridge over the river.
A bridge has been built over the river by the army engineers and soldiers.
5)The police will surely arrest the thieves.
The thieves will surely be arrested by the police.
6)My brother will repair my bike for me.
My bike will be repaired by my brother.
7)You must clean your watch once a year.
Your watch must be cleaned once a year.
8)I didn’t tell you Xiao Wang could do the job.
You were not told (that) the job could be done by Xiao Wang.
9)I cannot find my dictionary. Someone has taken it.
My dictionary cannot be found. It has been taken by someone.
10)She cannot find her bag. Someone must have taken it.
Her bag cannot be found. It must have been taken by someone.
11)The pupils asked the teacher to tell a story.
The teacher was asked by the pupils to tell a story.
12)The Association asked Mr. Green to make a speech.
Mr. Green was asked by the Association to make a speech.
13)The government is sending him abroad.
He is being sent abroad by the government.
14)He told me to wait here for him.
I was told to wait here for him.
15)Mr. Hopkins has found his wallet.
Mr. Hopkins’ wallet has been found.
16)The workers themselves invented the new machine.
The new machine was invented by the workers themselves.
17)They set up this hospital in 1950.
This hospital was set up in 1950.
18)Tom broke the window.
The window was broken by Tom.
19)Did you write the letter?
Was the letter written by you?
20)They do not make this kind of watches in Beijing.
This kind of watches are not made in Beijing.
21)People call him Little Old Man.
He is called Little Old Man.
22)John answered all the questions.
All the questions were answered by John.
23)The farmer was ploughing the field.
The field was being ploughed by the farmer.
24)People speak English in almost all the countries of the world.
English is spoken in almost all the countries of the world.
25)The wind blew the clouds away.
The clouds were blown away by the wind.
26)We shall paint the room.
The room will be painted.
27)Must I do all the exercises on my own?
Must all the exercises be done?
28)I am going to ring Tom up.
Tom is going to be rung up.
29)Everyone expects that he will win.
It is expected that he will win.
He is expected to win.
30)Did you finish your composition in class?
Was your composition finished in class?
31)Do you wash your clothes very often?
Are your clothes washed very often?
32)Have they paid you the money?
Have you been paid the money?
Has the money been paid to you?
33)Mr. Wang gave us an English lesson.
We were given an English lesson by Mr. Wang.
An English lesson was given to us by Mr. Wang.
34)He told his brother the news.
His brother was told the news.
2、将下列句子变成主动语态:
1)What were you told to do?
What did they tell you to do?
2)They were made to learn the poem by heart.
The professor made them learn the poem by heart.
3)The house was being cleaned while the dinner was being cooked.
He was cleaning the house while she was cooking the dinner.
4)It must have been done by an artist.
An artist must have done it.
5)The business has been taken over by his competitors.
His competitors have taken over the business.
6)Such customs should be done away with.
We should do away with such customs.
7)Why haven't the letters been written?
Why haven't you written the letters?
8)It must be done at once.
You must do it at once.
9)I ought to have been told sooner.
You ought to have told me sooner.
10)I wasn't told that he had been dismissed.
They didn't tell me that they had dismissed him.
3、用被动语态翻译以下句子(做翻译时,首先要看用什么句型和结构,再看用什么谓语动词,然后看用什么时态。这些是汉译英的关键。)
1)没有人强迫你去做那项工作。
You are not forced/compelled to do the work.
2)这个班由布朗先生教英语。
The class is taught English by Mr. Brown.
3)那棵大树被风刮倒了。
That big tree was blown down by the wind.
4)这间教室靠两个火炉取暖。
This classroom is heated by two stoves.
5)这篇文章是汤姆写的吗?
Was the article written by Tom?
6)你会得到老师们的帮助。
You will be helped by the teachers.
7)恐怕你要挨批评了。
I am afraid you will be criticized.
8)那封信已由王林写好。
The letter has been written by Wang Lin.
9)电影放映之前,票已全部售出。
All the tickets had been sold out before the film began.
10)试卷上所有的题目都必须做吗?
Must all the questions on the paper be answered?
11)我们学校正在修建一个新的化学实验室。
A new chemistry lab is being built in our school.
12)电视机关上了。
The television has been turned off.
13)在生产中可以很好地利用原子能。
Atomic/Nuclear energy can be made good use of in production.
14)大家知道,物质是在不断运动和变化的。
It is well known that matter is in constant motion and constant change.
15)有人看见他和李红在一起。
He was seen with Li Hong.
16)据报道,一两天内有大雨。
It is reported that there will be a heavy rain in a day or two.
17)林肯在竞选参议员失败后两年,当选为美国总统。
Two years after he was defeated in the Senate race, Abraham Lincoln was elected president of the United States.
18)他父亲被派到南京出差去了。
His father has been sent to Nanjing on business.
19)-新方案实行了吗?
-没有,还在计划中。听说还在提出各种建议。
-新方案完成时就要采取下一个步骤了。
-Has the new program been started yet?
-No, it is still being planned. It is said that suggestions are still being made.
-The next step will be taken when the new program is worked out.
20)-那个电话是什么时候打的?
-我想是昨天晚上打的。
-When was the telephone call made?
-I think it was made last night.

六.虚拟语气
多数中国人对虚拟语气的理解是:虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望,是假设的,虚构的,与事实相反的,或者是不太可能的。这种理解固然是对的,但并不全面。在英语中,虚拟语气是个广义的概念,包括好几种句型和结构。假设,意愿等只是虚拟语气的两个方面。
英汉两种语言表达虚拟语气的方式差异:
而在英语中,虚拟语气是通过句子中谓语动词的特殊形式来表示的。这又一次证明动词在英语中的核心地位,又一次证明要学好英语语法,就要学好英语动词。由于虚拟语气是通过句子中谓语动词的特殊形式来表示的,因此,掌握虚拟语气中所使用的各种谓语动词形式变化是掌握虚拟语气的关键,这也是虚拟语气的难点。虚拟语气本身也是英语语法的一个难点。
学习虚拟语气的方法是分别弄通虚拟语气的各种句型和结构,各个击破。下面对虚拟语气在各种句式中的用法分别介绍。

(一)虚拟语气用于表示假设的条件状语从句,状语从句相当于汉语的“假如…” “要是…”等。
请看一个句子:
If she invites me tomorrow, I shall go to the party. 如果她明天邀请我参加聚会,我就去。
这是个带条件从句的主从复合句,是直接的陈述语气,主句谓语动词用将来时,从句谓语动词用现在时代替将来时,表示能实现的动作。这句话说明说话人认为邀请的可能性较大。此句的条件是“只要她邀请我”,“去”这一动作就能实现。

请把这句话与下面虚拟语气的带条件从句的主从复合句进行比较:
1) If she invited me, I should go to the party. 假如她邀请我参加聚会,我就去。(说话人认为邀请的可能性较小或不可能。)
这句话主句谓语动词用过去将来时,从句谓语动词用一般过去时,其含义是:
She will probably not invite me, so I shall not go to the party. 她很可能不会邀请我参加聚会,所以我不会去。
2) If she had invited me yesterday, I should have gone to the party. 假如她昨天邀请我参加聚会,我就去了。
这句话主句谓语动词用“should + have + 过去分词”形式,从句用过去完成时,对过去发生的事情进行虚拟假设,表示与过去事实相反的情况,其含义是:
She didn’t invite me yesterday, so I didn’t go to the party. 她昨天没有邀请我参加聚会,因此我没有去。
3) If she should invite me tomorrow, I should go to the party. 如果她明天邀请我参加聚会,我会去的。
这句话主句谓语动词用过去将来时,从句谓语动词也用过去将来时,表示的意思是,“邀请我”的可能性较小,对将来要发生的情况表示怀疑。其含义是:
It is unlikely that she will invite me tomorrow, so I shall not go to the party. 明天她不可能会邀请我,因此我不会去。

从以上例句可以看出:虚拟语气的条件句是用谓语动词的特殊形式来表示与现在、过去事实相反的情况或对将来发生的情况表示怀疑,和直陈语气条件句的谓语动词形式以及所表达的含义完全不同。虚拟语气条件句中所用的谓语动词过去式、过去完成式、过去将来式等只表示不同的虚拟语气,与直陈语气句子的过去时、过去完成时等毫无关系,在学习时应注意加以区别,不要混淆。
现将虚拟语气在条件句中的各种具体形式和用法分述如下:
1、对现在的虚拟,表示与现在事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句的谓语动词用过去式(be的过去式用were.而主句中的谓语动词用would (should, could, might) + 动词原形。见下表:
条件状语从句的动词形式 主句的动词形式
If+主语+动词过去式(be的过去式were.在口语等非正式场合中,I,he,she,it等后面也可用was.但在If I were you中,一定要用were,不能用was. I (we)should+动词原形
主语+would (might,could)十动词原形
1、例句:
If I were you, I should study English.
(fact: I am not you, so I shall not study English.)
If he had time, he would attend the meeting.
(fact: He does not have time, so he will not attend the meeting.)
If they didn’t take physical exercises every day, they wouldn’t be so healthy.
(fact: They take physical exercises every day, so they are very healthy.)
If you went to bed earlier, you would not be so sleepy in the morning.
(fact: You often go to bed late, so you are always sleepy in the morning.)
If this were the case, it would be very awkward.
(fact: This is not the case, so it is not awkward.)

Now let’s do some translation:
要是没有虚拟语气,英语就会容易多了。
If there were no subjunctive mood, English would be much easier.
如果我是你,我就在房屋周围种些树。
If I were you, I would (should) plant some trees around the house.
如果我把头发染成蓝色,人人都会笑话我。
If I dyed my hair blue, everybody would laugh at me. Or: I would (should) be laughed at by everybody.
要不是她这么忙,她就会出席今天下午的会议了。
If she were not so busy, she would attend the meeting this afternoon.

2、对过去的虚拟,表示与过去的事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句的谓语动词用过去完成时,主句的谓语动词用would (should, could, might)+过去分词。见下表:
条件状语从司的动词形式 主句的动词形式
If+主语+had+过去分词 i(we)should+have+过去分词
主语+could (might,could)+have + 过去分词
例句:
If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t have failed in the examination.
(fact: You did not take my advice, so you have failed in the examination.)
I would have checked my paper again if I had had more time at yesterday’s examination.
(fact: I did not have more time at yesterday’s exam, so I didn’t check my paper again.)
He would have already recovered from his illness if he had seen the doctor in time. (fact: He didn’t see the doctor in time, so he has not recovered from his illness.) If we had known that she was to arrive yesterday, we could have met her at the station.
(fact: We didn’t know that she was to arrive yesterday, so we could not meet her at the station.)
You didn’t let me drive. If we had driven in turn, you wouldn’t have got so tired.
(fact: We didn’t drive in turn, so you have got so tired.)

Now let’s do some translation:
要是有人警告过他,他就不会吃那个食物了。
If he had been warned, he would not have taken that food.
如果你服从命令的话,灾难就不会发生了。
If you had obeyed the order, the disaster could not have happened.
假如你早接受了那个有经验的老工人的意见,你的试验就不会失败了。
If you had taken the old experienced worker’s advice, you wouldn’t have failed in the experiment.
如果我知道你要来的话,我就去机场接你了。
If I had known that you were to arrive, I would have met you at the airport.
如果我的律师上周六在这里,他就会阻止我去了。
If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going.
要是她工作更努力些,她本是成功的。
If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.
会上我没有见到你妹妹。如果她来了,她就见到我哥哥了。
I didn’t see your younger sister at the meeting. If she had come, she would have met my elder brother.

3、表示与将来事实相反的假设,对将来表示怀疑,或将来的动作不太可能实现时,条件状语从句和主句的谓语动词有以下形式:(见表)
条件状语从句的动词形式(三种) 主句的动词形式
(1)if十主语+动词过去式(be的过去式用were),通常要与一个表示将来的时间状语连用.
(2)If+主语(任何人称和数)+should+动词原形
(3)if+主语(任何人称和数)+were to+动词原形 I(we)should+动词原形
主语+would (might, could)+动词原形
请看以下句子:
1)If it rains tomorrow, our picnic will be put off. (说明:The weather has been very changeable these days.) 条件状语从句的谓语动词用现在时,表示说话人认为下雨的可能性很大。
2)If it rained tomorrow, our picnic would be put off. (说明:The weather has been very good these days.) 条件状语从句的谓语动词用过去时,表示说话人认为下雨的可能性不大。
3)If it should rain tomorrow, our picnic would be put off. (万一明天下雨,我们的野餐就推迟)。条件状语从句的谓语动词用should+动词原形,说明下雨的可能性很小或没有可能,如果下雨,那将是出乎意料的。
4)If it were to rain tomorrow, our picnic would be put off.这句话与上一句意思几乎一模一样。

If I saw him tomorrow, I would pass your note to him.
If she were to miss the train tomorrow, she might come back and start off again the day after tomorrow.

万一你失败了,你准备怎么办?
If you should fail, what would you do?
要是我明天真的见到她,我就把真相告诉她。
If I were to see her tomorrow, I would tell her the truth.
万一明天下雨,会议就推迟。
If it were to rain tomorrow, the meeting would be put off.
我打赌巴西会赢得世界杯。要是巴西输了,我就请你搓一顿。
I bet Brazil will win the World Cup. If it should lose, I would treat you a meal.
4、当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间来调整。这与以上三种情况不同,虚拟语气的谓语动词形式没有遵循以上规律。
For example:
If you had worked hard, you would be very tired. (从句说的是过去,主句指的是现在。)
If he had followed the doctor’s advice, he would be quite all right now.
If I were you, I would have gone home.
Now let’s do some translation:
如果她过去没有刻苦训练的话,就不会跑得这么快。(从句动作指的是过去,主句指的是现在的情况)(Fact: She has trained very hard, so she is able to run very fast now.)
If she hadn’t trained so hard, she wouldn’t be able to run so fast.
如果你当初每天都练习说英语的话,你的英语就会说得很好。(从句动作指的是过去,主句指的是现在的情况) (fact: You didn’t practice speaking English very hard every day, so you can’t speak English very well )
If you had practiced speaking English every day, you would speak English well enough.

5. 以上句型可以转换成以下形式:
1)条件状语从句省略if:在书面语中,如果条件状语从句的谓语中有were, had 或should, 就可以省略if, 并将were, had 或should 放到句首,谓语主语之前,用 “Were/Had/Should + 主语”的形式。这种虚拟语气在意义上与带if 的条件状语从句相同。当然,如果从句没有were, had, 或should,就不能省略if.
Now let’s look at some examples:
If I were to do it, I’d do it some other way. →Were I to do it, I’d do it some other way.
If you should fail, try again. →Should you fail, try again.
If you had been here earlier, you would have seen him. →Had you been here earlier, you would have seen him.
但是,If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting.这句话if 就不能省略。
而且,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略了if的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可以说:
Were it not for the expense, I would go to Italy.
但不能说:Weren’t it for the expense, I would go to Italy.
Please do not use “if”:
如果我是你,我每天早上就早起床。
Were I you, I would get up early every morning.
假如你昨天早十分钟到达火车站,你就赶上火车了。
Had you arrived at the station ten minutes earlier yesterday, you could have caught the train.
要是明天有会议,我就会来。
Should there be a meeting, I would come.
2)用介词短语代替条件状语从句。(可以改为条件状语从句)。例如:
Without air, there would be no living things.
But for your help, I couldn’t have done it.
Without electricity human life would be quite different today.

Now let’s do some translation. 请用介词短语代替条件状语从句。
要不是你的帮助,我就失败了。
But for (except, without) your help, I would have failed.
如果没有恰当的控制手段,核反应堆就会爆炸。
Without proper means of control, a nuclear reactor would explode.
3)用其他方式代替条件状语从句(可以改写为条件状语从句。)例如:
It would produce bad results to do that. 用动词不定式 =If you did that/should do that, it would produce bad results.
She would have come, but she wasn’t informed, nor invited. (用but.)=She would have come, if she had been informed or invited.
A more responsible person would not have left the work half done. 一个更负责的人是不会把工作做到一半就不管的。(用比较级) =If you (he, she) were more responsible, you (he, she) would not have left the work half done.

Now let’s do some translation:
聪明一点的人是不会干出这等蠢事的。
A wiser man would not have done such a foolish thing.
我应该早点写完这封信,但我一直很忙。
I should have written the letter earlier. But I have been very busy.
要能登上珠穆朗玛峰,那经历该多棒!
It would be a fantastic experience to climb up to Mount Everest.

6、虚拟语气省略条件从句或主句
表示虚拟语气的条件句的主句或从句有时可以省略,而省略部分的含义仍有所体现。
1)省略条件从句,如:
It would be very nice.
You could have done it yourself. (省略If you had wanted to.上下文可以看出You didn’t want to.) (Fact: You didn’t do the work yourself because you didn’t want to.)
I wouldn’t smoke. (省略If I were you.) (表面上说我,实际上说你。这是一种委婉的表达法。(Fact: You smoke very often. I advise you not to smoke any more.)
2)省略主句:在强调条件从句时,常省略主句,这种句子常表示一种“已不能实现”的愿望,主要用于If only 引导的感叹句中。
For example:
If only he were here!
If only I knew more!
If only he had stayed with us!

Now let’s do some translation:
要是我听了他的建议就好了!
If only I had taken his advice!
我如果是一只鸟就好了!
If only I were a bird.
快用If only 造三个句子,表达你的愿望!
If only I could live in a big apartment!
If only I were a billionaire!
If only I could marry her/him!

(二)虚拟语气的其他句型和用法
1、用在“wish+宾语从句”中,表示很难实现或不能实现的愿望,可以翻译为“但愿…”, “悔不该…”等。表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语动词用过去式;表示将来的愿望,从句的谓语动词用“would (could)+动词原形”;对过去的事情表示愿望,从句的谓语动词用 “had+过去分词” 或“could + have + 过去分词”。Wish 后面的宾语从句必须用虚拟语气,不管这个愿望是否能实现。如:
I wish it were Spring all the year round.
I wish you could go with us.
We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier.

Now let’s do some translation using “wish”:
我要是Jane 就好了。
I wish I were Jane.
他真希望自己生活在中世纪。
He really wishes that he were living in the Middle Ages.
但愿北京整年是秋天。
I wish it were autumn in Beijing all the year round.
要是你能同我们一起过寒假就好了。
We wish you would spend the winter vacation with us.
我要是没有买这辆车就好了。
I wish I had not bought this car.

Now, it’s time for you to make three wishes about your present, future, and past..
I wish I were twenty years younger.
I wish I could work for an NGO.
I wish I had studied law in college.

注意:wish 与hope接宾语从句的区别在于:hope表示一般可以实现的希望,宾语从句用陈述语气。Wish表示很难或不大可能实现的愿望,宾语从句用虚拟语气。请比较:
We hope we will succeed. (We don’t know if we will succeed.)
We wish we would succeed. (We know we can hardly succeed.)

2、用在as if/as though,或even if/even though引导的从句中: 这时,如果从句中表示的动作发生在过去,则谓语动词用had+过去分词形式;如果指的时现在的状况,则用过去式(be用were);指将来则用would(should, could)+动词原形。这里只看从句动作发生的时间,与主句的时态没有关系。
For example:
Some metals look at first sight as though they were gold.
He looked as if he were an artist.
He speaks English so fluently as if he had studied English in the U.S.
He always sounds as if he would help you.
When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it were broken.
Even if he were here, he could not solve the problem.

看她的样子,好像生病了。
She looks as if/though she were ill.
他走起路来就好像他是国王。
He walks as if he were a king.
他表现得若无其事。
He acted as if nothing had happened.
即使天塌下来,他也不会辞职。
He would not resign even if the heaven should collapse.

3、在It is (high) time (that)…句型中,后面的从句的谓语动词常用过去式(be的过去式用were), 或用should+动词原形(should 不能省略)来表示。这句话的意思是“(现在)该…”。For example:
It is time we left/should leave.
It is high time that you got married.
It is time that I bought a car.
Now it is time that you made some sentences by using this pattern. Think about what you should do now.
该你用这个句型造几个句子了。
It is high time that I should lose some weight.
It is time that I bought an apartment.
It is time that we took a rest.

4、在 I would rather (that)…句型中,后面的从句的谓语动词用过去式(be的过去式用were)。这句话的意思是“我宁可…”,表示说话人的意愿。
For example:
I’d rather I were in the rain now.
I’d rather you did not tell him.

5、用在suppose开头的祈使句中,从句的谓语动词变化与as if后面的动词变化规律相同,用过去式、过去完成式、或过去将来式。意思是“假如…”,但suppose 是动词,不是连词。如:
Suppose the boss walked in. What should I do?
Suppose Saddam had not been captured. What would the U.S. do?
Suppose Chen Shui-bian should declare Taiwan independent. What would China do?
6、用在for fear that或lest引导的从句中,表示“怕…”“万一…”等意思。从句的谓语动词用should+动词原形,should 可以省略。如:
She closed the windows for fear that she (should) catch cold.
The officer forbade the use of artillery lest the city’s industry be damaged.
Lest the wall should collapse, they evacuated from the building.

7. 在表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词,如arrange, command, demand, desire, insist, order, propose, request, require, suggest, beg, move(提议)后面的宾语从句中,谓语动词用should + 动词原形,should 可以省略,而引导宾语从句的that 不能省略。例如:
We suggested that we (should) have a meeting.
We insisted that they (should) go with us.
The doctor ordered that she (should) stay in bed for a few days.
He demanded that we (should) start right away.
The commander ordered that the bridge (should) be bombed.
The villagers requested that the old building not be pulled down.
Now let’s do some translation:
总经理坚持该项目必须按计划执行。
The general manager insisted that the project be carried out as planned.
省长请求再给他一次机会。
The governor requested that he be given another chance.
美国要求伊朗必须无条件放弃其核武器计划。
The United States demanded that Iran should unconditionally give up its nuclear weapon program (program to develop nuclear weapons)
最高法院裁定此案必须重新审理。
The Supreme Court ruled that this case be retried.
医生建议,即使在节假日人们也不应该熬夜。
Doctors suggest that people should not stay up late even on holidays.

注意:suggest 表示“暗示”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。Insist后面强调的是事实时,宾语从句也不用虚拟语气。如:
The neighbor suggested that his wife was having an affair.
He insisted that he was right.
Mike insisted that he had never stolen anything.
8、使用上述表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词派生的名词,或在这些动词用作名词时,名词之后的从句用虚拟语气,即从句的谓语动词用should+动词原形,should 可以省略。从句的引导词that 不能省略。这与上述第7项类似。如:
He made a request that he (should) be allowed to take 3 days off. = He requested that he be allowed to take 3 days off.
Our suggestion is that education not be industrialized. = We suggest that education not be industrialized.
The president’s decision is that the war against terrorism be launched at the right time. =The president decided that the war against terrorism be launched at the right time.

9、上述动词在It is suggested that…, It is required that…, It’s requested that…, It’s ordered that…, It’s arranged that…句型中,that 之后的从句用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用should+动词原形, should 可以省略,但引导词that 不能省略。如:
It was suggested that he attend the conference.
It was requested that the trial be openly reported.

10、在It’s important (imperative, necessary, essential, vital, desirable, advisable, better) that…句型中,that 引导的从句用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用should + 动词原形,should可以省略。这个句型表示说话人的意见、要求等。
For example:
It is essential that there should be enough food and clothing for the winter.
It is desirable that your wedding be postponed until next July.
It is imperative that the board chairman be present at the board meeting.
另外,在一些习惯用语中也有虚拟语气的形式。但最好把这些习惯用语作为一种句型来记住。如:
May you be happy!
May you succeed!
Long live the People’s Republic of China!
Everybody leave the room!
You had better not resign.
I would rather not tell you.
总之,虚拟语气是英语中的一个难点,因为虚拟语气的用法和句型较多,动词的变化比较复杂。在学习的时候要逐个过关。同时,也要善于发现虚拟语气的规律。根据动词的变化,大致可以把虚拟语气分为三种:
一种是动词用过去式,过去分词式,或过去将来式,这主要是用if…, wish, suppose的情况;
一种是动词用should+动词原形(should可以省略),这主要用于表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词或名词后面所接的从句,以及It is important (necessary) that…后面所接的从句;
一种是动词用过去式,如It is (high) time (that)…和I would rather 后面的从句。同学们还可以自己总结适合自己的规律,如把虚拟语气句型可以分为用于简单句、条件状语从句、宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句、定语从句、同位语从句等。
Now let’s do some exercises to consolidate what we have learned about subjunctive mood:
一、单项选择:
1. The teacher demanded that the exam ___before eleven.
a. must finish b. would be finished c. be finished d. must be finished
2. She made the demand that she ____ at once.
a. leave b. leaves c. left d. to be left
3. He is talking so much about America as if he ____ there.
a. had been b. has been c. was d. been
4. Mother insisted that the child’s hands ___ before dinner.
a. should wash b. be washed c. would wash d. had washed
5. The young man insisted that he ___ nothing wrong and ____ free.
a. did; set b. had done; should be set c. do; be set d. had done; must be set
6. Mother suggested that I ___ my homework first before watching TV.
a. did b. do c. shall do d. have done
7. My suggestion was that the meeting ____ off till next week.
a. to put b. be put c. should put d. be putting
8. The suggestion has been made ___the basketball game ___ put off.
a. for; to b. that; be c. which; should be d. to; being
9. The commander ordered that the wounded ___ to hospital right away.
a. to be sent b. be sent c. send d. should send
10. The order came that the medical suppliers ____ to the village without delay.
a. would be sent b. should send c. be sent d. must be sent
11. They requested that he ____ on the radio
a. spoke b. speaks c. speak d. would speak
12. It is important that we ___ wild animals.
a. will protect b. should protect c. shall protect d. are protecting
13. It is necessary that the problem ____ at once.
a. solves b. should solve c. should be solved d. will be solved
14. It is strange that he ____ interest in much of his research.
a. should have lost b. would lose c. had lost d. will lose
15. Had you listened to the doctor, you ___ all right now.
a. are b. were c. would be d. would have been
16. ___ I be free tomorrow, I could go with you.
a. Could b. Should c. Might d. Must
17. ___ to do the work, I should do it some other way.
a. If were I B. I were c. Were I d. Was I
18. ___ today, he would get there by Friday.
a. Would he leave b. Was he leaving c. Were he to leave d. If he leave
19. ____ your letter, I would have written back two days ago.
a. If I received b. Should I receive c. Had I received d. If I could have received
20. ____, he would have passed the exam.
a. If he were to study b. If he studied hard
c. Had he studied hard d. Should he study hard
21. Should it rain, the crops ___.
a. would be saved b. would have been saved c. will be saved d. had been saved
22. You ___ earlier. The bus left a moment ago.
a. would come b. should have come c. may come d. have come
23. He treated me as though ___ his own son.
a. I am b. I would be c. I was d. I were
24. He smiled as if he ____ my thought.
a. read b. was reading c. had read d. has read
25. I ____ you some money, but I hadn’t any on me then.
a. would lend b. would have lent c. could lend d. may have lent
26. He talks as if he ____.
a. knows all about it b. has known all about it c. knew all about it d. knowing all about it
27. “Have you ever been to Beijing?” “No, but I wish I ___.”
a. have b. will c. do d. had
28. Where is Xiao Zhang? I wish I ____ him at once.
a. can find b. will find c. could find d. could have found
29. I wish I ___ there then.
a. was b. were c. had been d. would be
30. It is time we ___ to bed.
a. must go b. will go c. went d. have gone
31. If I ____ you, I would try again.
a. am b. was c. were d. be
32. _____, all the students would hear.
a. If the teacher had spoken louder b. If the teacher will speak louder
c. Had the teacher spoken louder d. If the teacher spoke louder
33. What should we do if it ____ tomorrow?
a. should snow b. would snow c. snow d. will snow
34. If you _____ 5 minutes earlier, you _____ him.
a. should come; had seen b. came; would see
c. come; will see d. had come; would have seen
35. If only I ____ my watch.
a. hadn’t lost b. haven’t lost c. didn’t lose d. don’t lose
36. You _____ such a serious mistake if you had followed his advice.
a. may not make b. might have not made
c. shouldn’t have made d. might not have made
37. He ____ the test, but he wasn’t careful enough.
a. could have passed b. were able to pass c. must have passed d. might be able to pass
38. We ____ the work on time without your help.
a. hadn’t finished b. didn’t have finished c. couldn’t have finished d. can’t have finished
39. If you ____ at school, you _____ a college student now.
a. had studied hard; would have been b. should have studied hard; should have been
c. had studied hard; would be d. would study hard; must have been
40. If only I ____ as young as you are!
a. being b. am c. be d. were

二、改错
1. I wish that it is true.
答案:is 改为were
2. The doctor suggests that she will not smoke.
答案:will 改为should, 或去掉will
3. She insists that they must give her a receipt.
答案:must 改为should, 或去掉must
4. Bill wished that he is more interested in his work.
答案:is改为were
5. He would be a good sportsman now if he trained regularly.
答案:trained 前面加上had
6. I wish that somebody teaches me to sew.
答案:teaches 改为taught
7. I wish that you saw the charming opera yesterday.
答案:saw 改为had seen
8. This is not my dictionary. If it is mine I will lend it to you.
答案:第二句话改为If it were mine I would lend it to you.
9. If my watch were not slow yesterday, I would not have been late.
答案:were not 改为 had not been
10. If she had worked hard enough, she would pass the English exam.
答案:would pass 改为would have passed
11. If we could finish our work a little earlier today, we shall go to see the film.
答案:shall 改为should
12. What would be happened, if there were no sun, air or water?
答案:be happened 改为happen
13. Should the weather fine, we might go on a trip.
答案:fine 前面加上be
14. If it were not rain tomorrow, they might went to the Great Wall.
答案:rain 前面加上to, went 改为go
15. Long lives our motherland!
答案:lives 改为live

七、非谓语动词
Hello, everyone. 请看下面的翻译练习:
1、我喜欢做饭。“ I like cooking. ”
本句中,“like”(喜欢)是谓语。“cooking”(做饭)是宾语,用动名词形式。又如:“ He likes cooking. ”在英语中。谓语动词经常随着主语的人称、数而变化,但动名词作宾语时是不变的。
2、对我来说,学英语不容易。“ It' s not easy for me to learn English.”
3、从太空看,地球是个蓝色的球体。 “Seen from the space, the earth is a blue sphere.”
请比较这些句子的中英文。在这几个汉语句子中,做饭、学英语、从太空看分别作句子的宾语、主语和状语,但是其动词形式“做”、“学”、“看”没有变化。而在这几句英语中,“做饭”变成了cooking, “学”变成了to learn,“看”变成了seen. 动词形式发生了变化,而且必须发生变化,因为这些句子有另外的谓语动词。因此这些动词叫做“非谓语动词”,又叫“非限定性动词”,他们没有人称和数的变化。这是英汉动词的巨大差别,也是中国人学英语的一个难点,同时也是在使用英语时容易犯错误的地方。需要特别注意的是:英语的单句一般只有而且必须有一个主谓结构,即一个谓语,如果单句中出现了另外的动词,这些动词就要改变形式。
以上英语句子中cooking, to learn, seen 等具有动词特征,但是在句子中不能作谓语的动词形式,就叫动词的非谓语形式,也叫非谓语动词。
我们再比较 “I like cooking.” 与 “He likes cooking.”这两句话主语不同,谓语动词like形式变了,但意义没有变化。而cooking 没有任何变化。再看 “It is not easy for me to learn English.” 和 “It is not easy for him to learn English.” “对我”for me, “对他”for him之后的 “to learn”没有任何变化。可以看出,非谓语动词是不随人称和数的变化而变化的,它们不受人称和数的限定,所以又叫“非限定动词”。
动词在句子中除了充当谓语外,还可以起名词、形容词或副词的作用,在句子中充当主语、宾语、表语、补语、定语和状语。这就是动词的非谓语形式。当句子中需要用某种动作作主语、宾语或作某种修饰、说明的成分时,就要使用这种形式。
动词的非谓语形式有三种:
(1)动词不定式:to study (to + 动词原形)
(2)分词:studying (现在分词)、studied (过去分词)
(3)动名词:studying (形式与现在分词相同)
动词非谓语形式仍具有动词的一般特征,可以带有宾语、状语等构成短语。
动词非谓语形式有以下几种形式变化(以write为例):
形态 主动 被动
动词不定式 一般 To write To be written
进行 To be writing
完成 To have written To have been written
完成进行 To have been writing
现在分词和动名词 一般 Writing Being written
完成 Having written Having been written
一般 written

一、 动词不定式
其形式是“to+动词原形”。 to是不定式符号,无词义。其否定式是在to前面加上not, never等否定词。 不定式可以有自己的逻辑主语,由for引出,加在不定式短语前面。
如果不定式的逻辑主语是表示不定式动作的承受者,则不定式用被动语态。所谓逻辑主语,就是指非谓语动词等动作的执行者。由于非谓语动词等带有动词的特征,但又不是谓语动词,所以这个动作的执行者就不能称为主语,而在逻辑上又是这个动作的执行者,所以就称为逻辑主语。
如果不定式逻辑上的主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者,这个不定式一般要用被动语态。疑问词(who, whom, whose, what, which, when, where, why, how还包括whether)等后面加不定式构成不定式短语,可做主语,表语,宾语等。
(一)作主语。 在不定式短语作主语的句子中,往往用 it 作形式主语,而不把不定式短语放在句子的后面。如:
To die like that is a terrible thing.=It is a terrible thing to die like that.
象那样死去是一件可怕的事。( it 作形式主语,把真正的主语to die like that放在后面)
To know oneself is difficult.=It’s difficult to know oneself.
有自知之明不容易。
To tell a lie is not always easy.= It’s not always easy to tell a lie.
撒谎并非总是容易。
Never to offend anyone is my principle. 永远不得罪任何人就是我的原则。
It’s against nature to remain single. 保持单身是违反自然的。
To see is to believe. 眼见为实。
For a dog to die like that is a terrible thing. = It is a terrible thing for a dog to die like that.
一条狗象那样死去是一件可怕的事。(for a dog是不定式的主语)
For one to know everything is impossible.= It’s impossible for one to know everything.
一个人什么都知道是不可能的。
For his brother John to go to sea seems natural.= It seems natural for his brother John to go to sea. 他兄弟John去当水手是很自然的事。
It’ll be a great shame for you to forget her. 你要是把她忘了,那可太不应该了。
It’s not proper for us not to accept the invitation. 我们不接受邀请不合适。(否定)
It has not yet been decided when and where to discuss her resignation. 何时何地讨论她的辞职还没定。
但是,下列形容词做表语时,不定式的逻辑主语由 of 引出:
careless粗心的,clever聪明的,cruel残忍的,foolish愚蠢的,good好的,kind好心的 ,naughty淘气的,nice好的,polite礼貌的,right正确的,rude无礼的 ,silly愚蠢的,stupid傻的,unwise不明智的,wise明智的,wrong错误的,等等。

为什么这些词要用 of 引出不定式呢?
因为这些形容词都是描写人的性格和特点的形容词。“It is + 形容词 +of sb + to do sth”这样的句型更强调某人如何如何,可以改写为:“Sb + be + 形容词 + to do sth.” 而“for sb to do sth”这一结构更强调做某事如何如何。例如:
1、 It is difficult for me to learn English. 更强调学英语很难,不能写成
I am difficult to learn English. (这句话含有逻辑错误。)
2、 It is unwise of you to go to the United States at this time. =You are unwise to go to the United States at this time. 强调你不明智。
It’s very kind of you to come to see us off. =You’re kind to come to see us off. 你来为我们送行太好了。
It’s unwise of him to drink and smoke so much.=He is unwise to drink and smoke so much. 他喝这么多酒、抽这么多烟是不明智的。
It’s extremely cruel of John to kill animals. John杀害动物真是残忍之极。
It’s rude/polite of Jack to say this to her. Jack对她说这个,很无礼/礼貌。

(二)作宾语及宾语补语。
1、有些及物动词常用动词不定式作宾语。常见的这类动词有:afford负担得起,agree同意,arrange安排,ask要求,attempt试图,beg乞求,begin开始,choose选择,claim声称,consent同意,dare敢,decide决定,decline谢绝,desire欲想,demand要求,determine决心,expect期待,fail失败,forget忘记,hate讨厌,help帮助,hope希望,intend打算,learn学习,like喜欢,long渴望,manage设法,mean打算,need需要,offer主动提出,plan计划,prefer更喜欢,prepare准备,pretend假装,promise答应,refuse拒绝,remember记得,seek寻求,seem好像,tend倾向,threaten威胁,undertake承担,volunteer志愿,want想要,wish希望等。
I agreed to support him. 我答应支持他。
He said he wanted to be a professor. 他说他想当教授。
My daughter preferred to have eggs and milk for breakfast when she was in her twenties.
我女儿二十几岁时早饭喜欢吃鸡蛋和牛奶。

2、不定式可以和how, which, what, who, whom, whose, when, where还有whether等词连用作宾语。常跟这种结构作宾语的动词有:ask询问,advise建议,consider考虑,decide决定,discover发现,discuss讨论,explain解释,find out查明,forget忘记,inquire打听,know知道,learn学会,remember记得,show演示,tell告诉,teach教,think想,understand懂得,wonder想知道,等等。例如:
I don’t know where to get so much money. 我不知道去哪里搞这么多钱。
They haven’t decided whether to leave or stay. 他们还没决定是走还是留。
此外,这种不定式结构还可作主语,表语,和介词宾语等。
How to live a happy life is a difficult question to answer. 怎样过幸福生活是个很难回答的问题
The question is whom to choose for the position. 问题是这个位置选谁。
That was a discussion about how to increase their strength. 那是一次关于怎样增强他们力量的讨论。
He said nothing about what to do with her. 关于拿她怎么办,他啥也没说。 She asked my suggestion just now about where to go for her holidays. 关于去哪里度假,她刚才征求了我的意见。

3、有些动词需要不定式作宾语补足语。这种动词常见的有:ask请求,advise劝告,allow允许,beg乞求,believe相信,call on号召,cause促使,compel强迫,command指挥,direct指导,enable使…能够,encourage鼓励,expect期望,feel觉得,force迫使,get使得,hate不喜欢,have使,hear听见,help帮助,inspire鼓舞,intend 打算,invite邀请,instruct指示,know知道,lead引导,let让,like喜欢,listen to 听,look at看,make 使得, notice注意到, observe观察,order命令,permit允许,persuade说服,prefer更喜欢,press施加压力,remind提醒,request请求,teach教,tell告诉,urge敦促,want 想要,warn警告,wish希望,等等。
I asked my mother to buy a new bike for me. 我请求妈妈给我买辆新自行车。
Tony knew his girl friend to be a shy college student. 托尼知道他的女朋友是一个害羞的大学生。
They helped you to get on the bus, didn’t they? 他们帮你上了汽车, 是吗?

4、有些动词要求省掉to的不定式作宾语补语。这样的动词有:feel觉得,have使,hear听见,help帮助,let让,listen to 听,look at看,make使,notice 注意,see看见,observe 观察,watch观看 等,一类是感官动词,一类是使役动词。
A policeman saw the accident happen. 一位警察看见事故发生。
We listened to her talk about her experience abroad. 我们听她讲国外的经历。
We’d be glad to have you work with us. 我们会很高兴有你和我们一起工作。

上述help后面的不定式省掉to与保留to都可以。在被动语态中,上述动词后面的不定式要把省去的to还原。
I heard the dog come in. 我听见那条狗进来。
=The dog was heard to come in. 有人听见那条狗进来。
I saw her go out by bike. 我看见她骑着自行车出去了。
=She was seen to go out by bike. 有人看见她骑着自行车出去了。
Can I help (to) lift this heavy box? 我可以帮着搬起这个沉重的箱子吗?
You may as well help me (to)get things straight. 你不妨帮我把东西整理好。
She helped the old woman (to) cross the street. 他帮助那位老妇人过街

在had better(最好),would rather(宁愿),would sooner(宁愿),would (just) as soon(宁愿),cannot but(不能不,不由得不),cannot help but(不能不,不由得不)等成语后面也跟不带to的不定式:
He would rather listen to others than talk himself. 他宁愿听别人也不愿自己说。
He would sooner play than work. 他宁愿玩也不愿干活。
You had better go away right now. 你最好立即就走。
I would rather take this method. 我倒愿意采取这个办法。
I’d rather walk than take a bus. 我宁可走也不愿坐公共汽车。
She’d rather die than lose the children. 她宁可死也不愿失去孩子们。
I’d rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast.
She’d sooner stay at home.
I would as soon do it by myself.
I would just as soon stay as go. 我宁愿住下也不愿去。
We couldn’t but weep at the sad news.
You can’t but respect them.
Rather than和sooner than同义,都是“宁可”,“与其…(不如)”,“不是…(而是)”的意思。当它们放在句首时,其后跟不带to的不定式;在其它位置时其后的不定式可带也可不带to:
Rather than risk breaking up his marriage, he told his wife everything. 他把一切都告诉了妻子,而不是冒离婚的危险。
Rather than cause trouble, he left. 他宁可走开而不愿引起麻烦。
Sooner than marry that man, she would earn her living as a waitress. 她宁可当女招待养活自己,也不嫁给那个男人。
He decided to write rather than telephone. 他决定写信,不打电话。
The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages. 经理相信重要的是投资买新机器,而不是增加工资。
Rather than John do it, I’d prefer to do the job myself. 与其让John干这件事情,我宁可自己动手。

4、有些动词要求省掉to的不定式作宾语补语。
在Why 起首的疑问句中跟不带to的不定式:
Why not come with us? 为什么不跟我们一起来呢? =Why don' t you come with us?
Why not go for a game of tennis? 为什么不去打网球呢?
Why not relax yourself? 为什么不放松你自己呢?
Why not try to train your character? 为什么不培养你的性格呢?
Why not give the $40 to Tom? 干吗不把那40美金给汤姆呢?
For God’s sake, why bring that up again? 看在上帝的份上,干吗又提这事呢?
Why split hairs over the color of the dress? 干吗对连衣裙的颜色吹毛求疵呢?
Why run this risk? 干吗冒这个险?
Why risk breaking the law? 干吗冒犯法的险呢?

5、不定式作宾语而后面还有宾语补语时,常用it来代替不定式短语,而把真正作宾语的不定式短语放在补足语后面。常见的动词有:consider认为,feel觉得,find发现,make使,think认为,等等。例如:
I think it best to go. 我想最好走。
Do you consider it right to send our doctors over? 你觉得派我们的医生去对吗?
I found it strange for her not to come today. 我发现她今天没来是很奇怪的。

注意:hope希望,demand要求,suggest建议,这三个词不能跟不定式作宾补。
错误的句子:
I hope you to be happy. 我希望你快乐。
I suggest you to take him seriously. 我建议你要把他当回事。
We demanded them to give us a definite answer.我们要求他们给个确切的答复。
正确的句子:
I hope that you’ll be happy. 我希望你快乐。
I suggest that you take him seriously. 我建议你要把他当回事。
I advise you not to take him seriously. 我建议你不要把他当回事。
We demanded that they give us a definite answer. 我们要求他们给个确切的答复。

(三)作定语。不定式短语作定语时,一般放在被修饰的词之后,有些名词的后面常用不定式作定语。常见的有:ability能力,agreement一致,协议,ambition抱负、野心,anxiety焦急,attempt试图,campaign战役,chance机会,claim声称,courage勇气,decision决定,determination决心,drive努力,eagerness殷切的心情,effort努力,failure失败,hope希望,intention目的意图,motive force动力,movement运动、协议,need需要,opportunity机会,plan计划,promise诺言,readiness乐意,refusal拒绝,reluctance勉强不愿,resolution决心,tendency倾向,right权力,struggle斗争,threat威胁,time时候,way方法,willingness愿意,wish希望。
与这些词相对应的形容词或动词常接动词不定式。如ability →be able to, refusal →refuse to 等。
作定语时不定式表示将要发生的动作。
There is not any one to save him. 没有任何能救他的人。
He’s a not a man to tell lies. 他不是那种撒谎的人。
He’s a man to be trusted 他是个可以信赖的人。
He needs love to strengthen his broken heart. 他需要爱来给他那破碎的心以力量。
I don’t understand his idea to send his son to the Sahara. 我不明白他把儿子送到撒哈拉沙漠的想法。
I need to buy a box to hold my CDs. 我需要买个装CD片的盒子。
This visit is a good opportunity to learn Chinese. 这次访问是学习中文的好机会。
No investigation, no right to speak. 没有调查就没有发言权。
Not to speak much is the best way to avoid trouble. 不多言是避免麻烦的最好办法。
This is a good way to make money. 这是个赚钱的好方法。
We were given some bread to eat. 给了我们一些面包吃。
I’ve a lot of things to take care of in the office today. 今天我办公室里由于很多事情要处理。
Have you got a key to unlock this door? 你有开这个门的钥匙吗?
He needs a place to live in. 他需要有个住的地方。
This is not a pen to write with but to draw with. 这不是写字而是画画用的笔。
I have not a friend to talk with. 我没有能谈心的朋友。
作定语时,也可以给不定式加上主语。例如:
The order for the army to start has been given. 已经发出了让部队开始的命令。
The power for science to serve mankind is limitless. 科学为人类服务的力量是无穷的。
The letter for you to answer is placed on your desk.. 要你回的那封信放在你办公桌上。

(四)作表语。放在系动词之后。
例如:
To gamble is to commit suicide, but not to get rich. 赌博就是自杀,而不是致富。
To criticize others is to make enemies. 批评别人就是树敌。
To do everything is to do nothing. 什么都做等于什么也做不成。
Perhaps the most popular way of relaxing is to participate in sports. 也许最受欢迎的放松方式就是参加体育活动。
This matter is for you to consider. 这个问题是要你考虑的。
These apples are for the guests to eat. 这些苹果是给客人们吃的。
My hope is for all members to come together once a year. 我的希望是所有成员每年聚会一次。
My advice is for you to apologize to her. 我的建议是你向她道歉。
The question is where to go for help. 问题是到哪里求助。
To respect others is to be respected. 尊重别人就是受到别人的尊重。
To see her is to love her. 见到她就会爱上她。

(五)不定式短语和疑问词连用(who, whom, whose, what, which, when, where, how,还包括whether)
(1)做主语。
例如:
Who to turn to is what she wants to know. 找谁帮忙是她想知道的。
It’s problem what to do. 干什么还是个问题。
How to be wealthy, healthy and happy will always remain a question mark. 怎样才能富有,健康和幸福将永远是个问号。
(2)做表语。例如:
The question is which to take first. 问题是先拿哪一个。
What remains for you to explain is how to put the plan into practice and whose help to seek. 剩下需要你解释的是怎样实施计划以及寻求谁的帮助。
The question is which of the methods to adopt. 问题是采取这些方法中的哪一个。
(3)作宾语,常用这一结构作宾语的动词有ask, consider, decide discuss, explain, forget, find out, guess, inquire, know, learn, remember, see(=understand), show, settle(=decide), tell(=know), think, understand, wonder等。
I’ve found out where to buy them cheaply. 我发现了在哪里买这些东西便宜。
Do you remember when to switch off the machine? 你记得什么时候关掉机器吗?
I can’t tell what to do . 我说不好怎么办。
How can you tell which button to press? 你怎么知道按哪个按钮?
You know very well when to say what and how to say it. 你很清楚什么时候说什么话以及怎样说。
He can’t decide what time to leave or whether to leave at all.他不能决定何时离开或者到底是否离开。
有些双宾语及物动词,也可用这个结构做直接宾语。常用的有tell, inform, show, advise, ask, teach,等。如:
I showed her how to use the remote control. 我向她演示怎样使用遥控器。
The salesman told him which switch to turn on first. 售货员告诉他先开哪个开关。
Will you advise me which to buy? 你建议我买哪个?
Please inform me where to get the tickets. 请告诉我到哪里去弄票。
(4)做定语。例句:
I must find a pen with which to fill in this form(=to fill in this form with). 我必须找支钢笔填表用。
He offered me some hot coffee with which to refresh me spirit (=to refresh me spirit with). 他给我提供了点热咖啡提提神。
Nobel began to seek ways in which to make the explosive safer to handle.诺贝尔开始寻找那种炸药操作起来更安全的方法。

(六)作状语。不定式短语作状语,表示目的、原因、结果等。位置一般在句尾或句首。
(1)表示目的。如:
We waved flags, beat drums and blew bugles to encourage the players. 我们摇旗擂鼓吹号,来鼓励运动员。
They went to the U.S.A. not to study English but to study law and business. 他们去了美国,不是为了学英语,而是为了学法律和商务。
为了强调,有时用in order to (为了)或so as to (以便)加动词原形,放在句首或句尾均可。例如;
In order to improve my English, I read China Daily every day. 为了提高英语水平,我每天都看《中国日报》。
He took a taxi so as not to miss the train. 为了不误火车,他坐了出租车。
有些不定式习惯用语放在句首或句尾,作独立成分。例如:
To be frank(with you), this is not satisfactory. 老实(和你)说,这不令人满意。
To be fair, she is an honest girl. 说句公道话,她是一个诚实的姑娘。
To tell you the truth, you are wrong.. 实话告诉你,你错了。
这样的短语还有to tell you the truth实话告诉你,to conclude 最后, to begin with首先,to cut a long story short 简而言之,to go back to the point回到正题,not to make too much of it 别小题大做,to put it another way 换句话说,to hear him talk听他说话的口气,等等。
(2)表示原因。例如:
To hear him talk in that manner, you would think him a foreigner. 他这样说话,你会以为他是外国人。
The old father smiled to know his success. 知道他成功的消息,那位老父亲笑了。
不定式短语可以和表示情绪的形容词和过去分词连用,有时说明产生这种情绪的原因,有时不是说明原因,而是和形容词一起说明主语的情况。
常见的这类形容词和过去分词有:
able有能力的,afraid 害怕的,amazed 感到惊异的,angry生气的,anxious 急于的,astonished 感到惊讶的, careful小心的, certain有把握的,clever聪明的, comfortable舒服的,cruel残忍的,deep深的,delighted 高兴的, difficult有困难的, disappointed感到失望的,determined 有决心的,eager 急于的, easy容易的,fit 合适的,foolish 愚蠢的,fortunate 幸运的, free自由的,frightened感到害怕的,glad高兴的,good好的, happy幸福的,hard艰苦的,lucky 幸运的,overjoyed 高兴的, pleased高兴的,possible 可能的,proud 自豪的,ready 准备好的,relieved 感到轻松的,right正确的,sad悲伤的,shocked感到惊讶的, sorry难过的,sure 肯定的, surprised感到惊讶的, unable没能力的,useless没用的,willing 愿意的,worthy 值得的,wrong 错误的等。
例如:
He’ll be angry to hear these words. 听到这些话他会生气的。
You’re lucky to have me as your teacher. 有我当你们老师,你们很幸运。
He feels proud to be on the school football team. 作为校足球队队员他感到很自豪。
Be careful not to catch cold. 小心别感冒。
He’s anxious to go back straight to London. 他急于直接回伦敦。
They’ll be ready to leave in about an hour. 再有大约一小时他们就准备好了。
The new manager is easy to get along with . 新经理很容易相处。
This river is broad, deep and good to swim in. 这条河宽且深,是游泳的好地方。
Your sofa is comfortable to sit in. 你的沙发坐上去很舒服。

(3)不定式做结果状语只限于下面几个词:learn得知,find 发现,see 看见,hear 听见, to be told被告知,make 使得 等。only+不定式常表示出乎意料的结果。例如:
He hurried to the airport to learn that the flight had already taken off. 他急忙赶到机场,却得知飞机已经起飞了。
He returned home from his holiday only to find that his house had been broken into. 他休假回家,却发现他的房子被破门而入了。
(4) 不定式还可以与“be said, be reported,…”等连用构成复合谓语。这一结构可变成“It’s said, It’s reported,…”(见被动语态部分)。如:
An explosion is reported to have happened, and three are known to have been killed.
= It’s reported that an explosion has happened and it’s known that three have been killed.
据报道发生了一起爆炸,已知三人被炸死。

(七)不定式的时态。动词不定式一般有三种时态形式,即一般式、进行式和完成式。
(1) 一般式(to+动词原形):表示与主句谓语动词动作同时(或几乎同时)发生或在主句谓语动词之后发生的事情。例如:
We’re happy to have you on our side. 有你在我们这边我们很高兴。
I saw him go out. 我看见他出去了。( 不定式go out 与 see同时发生。)
They invited me to have dinner with them. 他们邀请我和他们一起吃晚饭。
I hope to see you again. 我希望再见到你(to see发生在hope之后)
(2) 进行式(to be+现在分词):表示主句谓语的动作发生时,不定式动作正在进行。例如:
She’s said /believed to be living nearby. 据说/据信她就住在附近。
When he came in, I happened to be sleeping in bed. 他进来时,我碰巧正在床上睡觉。
They seem/appear to be enjoying themselves. 看上去他们似乎很快活。
He pretended to be doing his homework when he heard his father’s sound. 他听见父亲的声音,假装正在做作业。
The president was reported to be visiting the hospital. 据报道总统正在访问那家医院。
(3)完成式(to have+过去分词):表示在主句谓语的动作之前发生的事情。
如:I’m glad to have met your parents here. 我很高兴在这儿见到了你父母。(已见过)
I’m sorry to have kept him waiting for me so long. 我很抱歉让他等了我这样久。(已经等过了)
动词不定式的完成式和下列动词的过去时连用,表示过去没有实现的事情:plan, hope, expect, be, intend, mean, wish, 等。注意一定是它们的过去时。另外还有should/would like/love。这个结构表示“本打算/想/计划…”的意思。例如:
The game were to have taken place in Room. 比赛原计划在罗马举行。
He planned to have gone abroad last week.= He planned to go abroad but he didn’t. 他原计划上周出国的。
I’d like to have been offered the job and(to have been)given the opportunity to prove myself. 我真想(当时)把这个工作给了我,给我个机会让我证明我自己。
同样的意思也可用上述动词的过去完成时加动词不定式的一般式来表达。例如:
I had hoped to visit the great pyramid .= I hoped to have visited the great pyramid.=I hoped to visit it, but I didn’t. 我本希望参观大金字塔的。
They would have liked to have your help.=They would like to have had your help.=They wanted to have your help but they didn’t have it. 他们本想得到你帮助的。

(八)不定式的被动语态。当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般要用被动形式。不定式的被动形式有两种:
一般式:to be+过去分词
完成式:to have been+过去分词
例如:
You’re lucky to have been accepted . 你很幸运已经被接受了。
These criminals are to be hanged . 这些罪犯是将被绞死的。
We’re glad to have been invited. 受到邀请我们很高兴。
What’s to be done next? 下一步做什么?
It is an honor for me to be asked to speak here. 我很荣幸应邀在这里讲话。
(九)为了避免重复,不定式可省略,但to有时保留,有时不保留。例如:
You will make it if you try (to). 如果你努力,你会成功的。
George says he is going to leave Shanghai, but I don’t think he really wants to. George 说要离开上海,但是我不认为他真的愿意走。
Some of them retired, and others were ready to. 一些人退休了,还有的准备退。
He always speaks faster than he needs to. 他说话总是没必要的快。
I’d like to do it now, but I haven’t got the time (to). 我倒是想现在干,但没时间。
“Would you go there with me?” “I’m glad to.” “你愿意和我一起去吗?”“愿意。”
“Did you pass the exam?” “No, I tried (to), but I failed.” “你考试及格了吗?”“没有,我努力了,但没成功。
“Do you want to sing them an English song?” “I prefer not to.” “你愿意为他们唱首英文歌吗?”“我不想唱。”
You’d better sing an English song if they ask you (to) again.如果他们再要求你,你最后唱一首英文歌。
后面常省略不定式而保留to的结构,还有:
used to 常常 be going to 打算
mean to 打算 ought to 应该
plan to 计划 want to 要想

(十)两个不定式由and, or, except, but, than 连接时,第二个可省略to,尤其是两个不定式紧密相连时。例如:
I intend to call on him and discuss this question again. 我打算去拜访他并和他谈谈这个问题。
I’d like to lie down and go to sleep. 我想躺下睡觉。
You’re free to talk or laugh here. 在这里你可以随便说笑。
I’m anxious to go and ask him about it. 我急于去问问他这个事。
Do you want to have lunch now or wait till later? 你想现在吃午饭还是再等会儿?
We had nothing to do except (to) look at the posters outside the cinema. 我们无事可做,只有看看电影院外面的招贴。
He had nothing to do except talk nonsense. 除了胡说八道,他没别的事干。
I would rather die than be insulted. 我宁死也不受侮辱。
I’ll do anything but work on a farm. 除了去农场干活,我什么都干。
It’s easier to persuade people than (to) force them. 说服人容易,强迫人难。
It’s better to take a taxi than (to) wait here. 搭出租车也比在这等强。
句子中but后面的不定式带不带to,取决于but前面的句子里含不含do,只要有与do/did有关的词(do作谓语,to do作定语等等),but后面的不定式就省掉to。例如:
I can do nothing but go there alone. 除了独自一个到那里去,我别无选择。
I have nothing to do but go there alone. 除了独自一个到那里去我没事可干。
He did nothing but cry all day long. 他除了整天哭,什么也不干。
Now let’s do some exercises:
1.用动词不定式结构完成下列句子:
1)Let’s _______ (早回家). → go home early
2)I am going _____ (问问题). → to ask some questions
3)I’ve been hoping ______ (会见格林先生)ever since I left school → to see Mr. Green
4)It is difficult ______ (照顾这么多小娃娃). → to look after so many babies
5)He likes _____ (在月光下散步). →to walk in the moonlight
6)She is afraid ____(独自去). → to go alone
7)I pretended ______ (睡着了). → to be asleep
8)I should like _____ (今晚去看那个话剧). →to go to watch that drama tonight
9)Be careful ____ (别着凉). →not to catch cold
10)Mr. Green seemed ____ (越来越不喜欢他). →to dislike him more and more
11)It is too heavy _____ (你搬不动). →for you to carry
12) You have to work hard ____(考试及格). →to pass the examination
13) Tom intends ____(找个新工作). →to look for a new job
14) What do you want ____ (吃)? →to eat
15) I hate _____(这么早离开),but I am afraid ____(我不得不这么早离开). →to leave so early; I have to
16)The enemy soldiers refused ____ (再战斗下去). → To fight anymore
17) He decided _____ (成为物理学家). →to become a physicist
18) The woman came out ____ (看看在发生什么事). →to see what was happening
19) I mean _____ (完成这个任务), one way or another. →to accomplish the task
20) He was planning _____ (和她一起去). →to go with her
21) He seems _____ (过去是个猎手). →to have been a hunter
22) I happened _____(看过这本书). →to have read the book
23) I happened ____ (正挨着他站着) when he was shot. →to be standing next to him
24) The enemy is believed ____ (已被击败). →to have been defeated
25) The teacher wanted the composition ______ (当堂做完). →to be finished in class
26) He appears _____ (是你的朋友) but I doubt if he is. →to be your friend
2.汉译英
1)学生们要求进来。 The students asked to come in.
2)我希望不久可以见到我奶奶。 I hope to see my grandma soon.
3)我刚才设法把门打开了。 Just now I managed to open the door.
4)我答应等他。 I have promised to wait for him.
5)那位官员拒绝见我。 The official refused to see me.
6)他们似乎误了火车。 They seem to have missed the train.
7)你想要和我一起走吗? Do you want to go with me?
8)他没答应走开。 He didn’t promise to go away.
9)他答应不走开。 He promised not to go away.
10)记住不要和那个阿飞(teddy boy)说话。
Remember not to speak to (talk with) that teddy boy.
11)我希望不久接到他们的来信。 I hope to hear from them soon.
12)比尔好像并不明白。 Bill doesn’t seem to understand it.
13)你一定要记住,到七点钟你才能离开。
You must remember not to leave until seven o’clock.
14)那些人不愿意留在这里。 Those men don’t want to stay here.
15)望你及时把它完成。 You are expected to finish it in time.
16)登山的人没有到达山顶。 The climbers failed to reach the peak (top of the mountain).
17)他认为(expect)我会等他吗? Does he expect me to wait for him?
18)你没有告诉他在信上贴邮票吗? Didn’t you tell him to put a stamp on the letter?
19)你愿意帮我学习这一课吗? Will you help me (to) learn this lesson?
20)为什么你不让她帮助你?
Why not get her to help you?或Why don’t you get her to help you?
21)请你让前面那个人把帽子摘下来。 Please ask that man in front of you to take his cap off.
22)你要我干什么呢? What would you like me to do?
23)如果你的朋友们想留下,就让他们全呆在这里吧。
Let your friends all stay here if they want to.
24)我们尽量设法使他明白。 We tried to make him understand.
25)我不知道怎么开始。 I don’t know how to begin.
26)很抱歉,我星期六没来。 I’m sorry not to have come on Saturday.
27)李红要一个人做全部工作。 Li Hong wants to do all the work alone.
28)我很高兴见到你。 I am very glad to see you.
29)你不能使那些孩子们安静下来吗? Can’t you make those children keep quiet.
30)你打算带多少人去看电影呢? How many people are you going to take to the cinema?
31)我没有把药吃完,因为你叫我别都吃了。I didn’t finish the medicine because you asked me not to.
32)如果你要我给你做早饭,我就给你做。 I will cook your breakfast if you would like me to.
33)这水太脏,不能用。 The water is too dirty to use.
34)那些石头太重,你搬不动。 Those stones are too heavy for you to carry.
35)那台电视机太贵,我买不起。 That TV set is too expensive for me to afford.
36)工人们太累了(be tired enough),立刻就睡着了。The workers were tired enough to go to sleep at once.
37)那孩子很累,以致立刻就睡着了。 The boy was so tired that he went to sleep at once. 38)那个老头累得站都站不直。 The old man was too tired to stand up straight.
39)你想去看电影吗???不,我宁愿呆在家里。Would you like to go to the cinema? ?No, I’d rather stay at home.
40)你不愿意你的朋友先和他谈谈吗?Wouldn’t you like some of your friends to talk to him first?
41)学生们急于知道考试的结果。 The students are anxious to know the results of the exam.
42)说实话,我不懂文学。 To tell the truth, I know nothing about literature.
43)我听到他们在隔壁房间里谈话了。 I heard them talk in the next room.
44)我已下定决心要更加努力地学习。 I have made up my mind to study even harder.
45)美国有可能消灭恐怖主义吗? Is it possible for the United States to wipe out terrorism? 46)你把你的计划向他解释一下,方便吗? Is it convenient for you to explain your plan to him?
47)如果你有机会去西山的话,我愿意和你一起去。If you have a chance to go to the Western Hills, I’d like to go with you.
48)等你想好了,请把你的决定告诉我。After you think it over, please let me know what you have decided to do.
49)探身窗外是危险的。 It is dangerous to lean out of the window.
50)遵守法律是每个人的义务。 It is everyone’s duty to obey the law.
51)约翰感到心跳得很快。 John felt his heart beat fast.
52)汤姆到浴室去洗手。 Tom went to the bathroom to wash his hands.
53)小王站在椅子上,这样看节目就看得更清楚些。 Xiao Wang stood up on a chair so as to see the performance better.
54)他走出房间以便听不到闹声。 He went out of the room so as not to hear the noise any more.
55)孩子们急于要动身。 The children were anxious to start.
56)别惹我们笑了。 Don’t make us laugh.
57)应该把这件事告诉老师。 The teacher ought to be told about it.
58)这所房子只出租,不出售。 The house is to let, not to be sold.
59)他们是来看的,不是来给人看的。 They came to see, not to be seen.
60)这个成语难于解释,但不难(be no trouble)用。 This idiom is hard to explain, but it is no trouble to use.

二、动名词
动名词可以起名词的作用,在句子中作主语,宾语,表语,定语。动名词仍保留动词的一般特征,可以有自己的宾语和状语,构成动名词短语。 动名词的否定形式是在前面加上not, never等否定词。
(一)做主语和表语。动名词短语用and连起来做主语时,谓语用复数形式。例如:
Fishing in this lake is forbidden. 这个湖里禁止钓鱼。
Going abroad for a visit and settling down abroad are two different things. 出国访问和在国外定居是两件不同的事情。
It seems that reading English is easier than speaking it.似乎读英语比说英语容易。
My favorite hobby is fishing/collecting stamps . 我最喜欢的爱好是钓鱼/集邮。
在It’s no use; It’s (no) good; It’s useless ; It’s (not) wise; It’s (not) worthwhile; It’s of great (no, little) importance 等习惯表达中,It为形式主语,而将做主语的动名词短语放在后面。例如:
It’s no use /good ringing her up now. 现在给她打电话没用了。
Is it worthwhile bargaining two hours for two cents? 为两分钱讲价两小时值得吗?
It’s wise trying again. 再试一次是明智的。
It is of great importance fighting against pollution. 制止污染有重要意义。
It is no use operating on the sick man. He should have been sent here early. 给这个病人做手术已经没用了。本应该早些把他送来。
It is no good smoking; you’d better give it up. 吸烟没好处,你最好戒掉。

(二)动名词短语作宾语。常用的能接动名词的动词有:admit承认,appreciate 感激,avoid 避免,advise 建议,can’t help 不禁,celebrate 庆祝,consider 考虑,complete 完成, contemplate沉思、打算,defer推迟,delay 延期,deny 否认,detest 痛恨,discontinue 停止, dislike不喜欢,dispute不同意,endure 忍耐,enjoy 喜欢, escape逃脱,excuse 原谅, fancy想象,feel like 想要, finish结束, 严禁,forgive 原谅,hinder 阻碍,imagine想象,keep 保持,mention 提到,mind 在意,miss 错过,pardon 饶恕、原谅,permit允许,postpone 推迟,practise 实践、练习,prevent 阻止, recall 回忆, report报告,resent 怨恨, resist抵制、阻止,risk冒险,stop 停止,suggest 建议,understand 明白、理解,等等。
例如:
He avoided giving me a definite answer. 他避免给我一个正确答案。
David suggested selling your dog and car to pay the debt. 戴维建议卖掉你的狗和车抵债。
(我们把这句话改为虚拟语气:David suggested that you (should) sell your dog and car to pay the debt. )
I couldn’t risk missing that train. 我可不敢冒误了那趟火车的险。

下列动词既可用动词不定式又可用动名词做宾语:
abhor憎恶,attempt 试图,begin 开始,cannot bear 无法忍受,cannot stand无法忍受,cease停止,continue,继续,,decline 拒绝,deserve值得,disdain蔑视,dread害怕,endure忍耐,forget忘记,hate 痛恨,intend打算,learn学,like 喜欢,loathe厌恶,love喜欢,mean意思是、意味着,need需要,neglect疏忽,omit省略,忽略,plan计划,prefer更喜欢,propose建议,regret后悔,remember记得,require需要,scorn蔑视、瞧不起,start开始,try尝试,努力,entail必须,involve涉及,necessitate使成为必要,等。以上多数动词用不定式或用动名词作宾语意思一样,个别不同。

(三)动名词短语作介词宾语的时候最多。尤其是在短语动词后面。如:
The children are fond of listening to pop music. 孩子们喜欢流行音乐。
Are you interested in going to the show? 你有兴趣去看演出吗?
Thomas insisted on doing it in his own way. 托马斯坚持按他自己的方法做这件事。
我们把这句话改为虚拟语气:Thomas insisted that he (should) do it in his own way.
Excuse me for interrupting you. 请原谅我打扰你,
Since returning from Xi’an, he has been busy. 从西安回来后,他一直很忙。
He warned me against swimming in this lake. 他警告我不要在这个湖里游泳。
改为不定式短语:He warned me not to swim in this lake.
We came out without being seen. 我们出来没被人看见。
Before finishing your homework, you’d better not go out. 做完作业之前,你最好别出去。
改为用before 作连词:Before you finish your homework, you’d better not go out.

(四)动名词也可以有自己的逻辑主语,就是在动名词短语前面加上物主代词或名词的所有格。带逻辑主语的动名词短语可做主语,宾语,表语等。在非正式文体当中,经常把物主代词简化为宾格人称代词,把名词所有格简化为名词。例如:
I insisted on his (him) going to the cinema with me. 我坚持要他和我一起去看电影。
I can hardly imagine Peter(Peter’s) sailing across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. 我简直不能想象彼得会在五天内横渡大西洋。
Linda’s coming will do you good.(主语) 林达的到来对你有好处。
What made him angry was their (them) laughing.(表语)使他生气的是他们笑。

(五)动名词的完成式和被动语态:
(1)完成式表示动名词的动作发生在谓语动作之前。例如:
I apologize for having broken my promise. 我没有遵守诺言,我道歉。
I don’t remember having talked with him before. 我不记得以前曾和他谈过话。
恨不相逢未嫁时。 → I regret not having met you before my marriage/before I got married.
(2)当动名词的逻辑主语是动名词动作的对象或承受者时,动名词要用被动语态。例如:
I could no longer stand being treated like that. 我再也不能忍受被那样对待。
She was proud of having been trained in the U.K. 在英国受过训,她感到自豪。
他不喜欢嘲笑别人。 →He doesn’t like laughing at others.
他不喜欢被人嘲笑。→He doesn’t like being laughed at.

(六)某些动词可接不定式也可接动名词做宾语,但意义有差别。
(1)like, love, hate, prefer等表示喜爱,厌恶的动词后面,可用动名词也可用不定式作宾语,意义差别不大。但当这些词前面有should或would时,一定要用动词不定式作宾语。表示想要,愿意,打算。例如:
She likes dancing. But she wouldn’t like to dance with you. 她喜欢跳舞。(泛指)但他不喜欢和你跳。(特指)
He looked tired and I didn’t like to disturb him. 他看上去很累,我不想打扰他。
I don’t like reading, but I’d like to read a magazine in bed tonight. 我不喜欢看书,但是今天晚上倒想躺在床上看本杂志。
Little Jim should love to be taken to the theatre this evening. 小吉姆今晚喜欢被带去看戏。
The reporter would /should like to see you again. 那位记者还想见见你。
We don’t like talking about people behind their backs.我们不喜欢背后议论人。
hate to do sth 表示“真不想做某事,(但不得不做)”。如:
I hate to disturb you now, but I have no choice. 我真不想现在打扰你,但没有办法。
(2) forget to do sth.忘记去做某事(未做)
forget doing sth.忘记做过某事(已做)
例如:
The light in the office is still on. She forgot to turn it off. 办公室的灯还在亮着。她忘记关了。(关灯的动作没做)
The light in the office is off. She turned it off, but she forgot turning it off. 办公室的灯没亮着。是她关的,但她忘记关过灯。(已关过灯,她忘了)
她昨天又来还我二百元钱。她忘记上个月还我了。→She came to pay back RMB 200 to me again yesterday. She forgot having paid it back to me last month.
(3)remember to do sth.记着去做某事
remember doing sth. 记得做过某事
例如:
Do you remember meeting me at a party last year? 你记得去年一次宴会上见过我吗?(已见过面)
You must remember to leave tomorrow。 你一定要记着明天离开。(还没离开)
(4)stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事
stop doing sth. 停止做某事
例如:
She stopped to have a rest on a big rock by the side of the path. 她停下来,在路边的一块大石头上休息。
As long as you live, your heart never stops beating, 只要你活着,你的心脏就永远不会停止跳动。
(5) regret to do sth. 对尚未做的或正在做的事情表示遗憾;
regret doing sth. 对已做的事情表示后悔
例如:
I regret saying that. 我后悔说了那话。
I regret to tell you the following truth. 我非常遗憾地告诉你下面这个事实。
(6)try to do sth努力去做某事
try doing sth.做某事试一试
例如:
You must try to do it again. 你必须想方设法再做一次。
Let’s try doing the work in some other way. 咱们用另一种方法做这工作试试。
(7) mean to do sth. 打算、意欲做某事
mean doing sth.意味着做某事
例如:
If it means delaying more than a week, I’ll not wait. 如果这意味着拖延一个多星期,我就不等了。
I mean to help you, and nothing else. 我想帮助你们,没别的。
我不是想伤害你,对不起。→I didn’t mean to hurt you. I’m sorry.
宣布台独就是对中国宣战。→Declaring Taiwan independent means declaring war on China.
(8) go on to do sth.做了一件事又去做另一件
go on doing sth继续做原来的事情
例如:
After he finished his maths, he went on to do his physics. 他作完数学后,接着又做物理。
I hope it won’t go on raining all day long. 我希望这雨别一天下个没完。

现在做一些练习:
1.根据括号里的汉语意思用动名词填空:
1)(游泳)is a very enjoyable exercise. (Swimming)
2) His work is (修自行车). (Repairing bicycles)
3) Europeans uses an knife and a fork (吃肉). (for eating meat)
4) We will only succeed by (努力工作). (working hard)
5) I don' t want to force you into (做违反你愿意做的事情). (doing something against your will)
6) Tom hates (早晨9点以后起床). (getting up before 9 o' clock)
7) I could' t help (迟到). (being late)
8) (等着没用) there won' t be another bus. (It's no use waiting)
9) Are you against (今天开会). (having the meeting today)
10) Instead of (挨批评), she ought to be praised. (being criticized)
2. 用动名词结构将下列句子译成英语:
1)她听见敲门声,停止了工作去开门。
When she heard the knocking at the door, she stopped working to open the door.
2)谢谢你给我写信。
Thank you for writing to me.
3)雨停了,太阳开始出来了。
It stopped raining and the sun began to shine.
4)希望你原谅我问了这么多问题。
I hope you will excuse me for having asked all these questions.
5)你要吃点什么,别不好意思说。
If you want something to eat, don’t be shy of saying so.
6)我一向很喜欢在这里工作。
I have always enjoyed working here.
7)我建议再等半个小时。
I suggest waiting for another half an hour.
8)我不得不认为(believe)又一不幸事件将要发生。
I can’t help believing that another unlucky event will happen.
9)我盼望着收到他的信。
I am looking forward to receiving his letters.
10)那辆汽车需要修理。
That car wants fixing up (repairing).
11)我记得我们离开房间之前把灯关上了。
I remember switching off the lights before we left the room.
12)你对早起已经很习惯了。
You are quite used to getting up early.
13)中国球迷们正盼望见到这些足球明星。
Chinese football (soccer) fans are looking forward to seeing the football stars.
14)光线够好的,可以看书。
The light is good enough for reading.
15)作为一个中国人,他感到骄傲。
He is proud of being a Chinese.
16)我善于游泳。
I am good at swimming.
17)他尝试过(try one’s hand at)写一本书。
He has tried his hand at writing a book.
18)我真的记得去年和他见过面。
I do remember meeting him last year.
19)把门打开,让猫出去好吗?(Do you mind…)
Do you mind opening the door to let the cat out?
20)这个电影很值得一看。
This film is well worth seeing.
3. 用动词不定式或动名词填空:
1) He wanted ____ (see) the book I had bought.
→ to see
2) Please stop ___ (walk) about the room and sit down.
→ walking
3) I called ____ (see) her yesterday but she was out.
→ to see
4) In 1969, the United States succeeded in ____ (send) a rocket to the moon and ___ (land) two astronauts on its surface.
→ sending; landing
5) We decided ___ (put) off the meeting until Saturday.
→ to put
6) Let me ___ (see) what you are doing.
→ see
7) When the professor finishes ____ (speak), we will ask him a question.
→ speaking
8) He made her ___ (go) although she wanted ___ (stay).
→ go; to stay
9) Please remember ____ (give) her this letter.
→ to give
10) We heard him ___ (say) that he disliked ____ (go) abroad any more.
→ say; going
11) The child enjoyed ___ (play) at the seaside.
→ playing
12) The little boy was made ___ (take) the medicine.
→ to take
13) I watched the shop assistant ___ (take) the goods down for the shelf and put them on the counter.
→ take
14) He remembers ___ (go) to Shanghai with his parents when he was five.
→ going
15) She had her husband ___ (wash) her dirty linen.
→ wash
16) The thief kept ____ (say) he hadn’t taken the purse.
→ saying
17) The policeman saw him ___ (steal) the bicycle and ride away on it.
→ steal
18) I’ve persuaded him ___ (help) us do the job.
→ to help
19) You had better ____ (go) home now. It looks like rain.
→ go
20) Let me___ (know) if you had decided ____ (go).
→ know; to go
21) He promised ___ (come) to our party.
→ to come
22) I forget ____ (see) you there.
→ seeing
23) Don’t forget ___ (see) your grandma this Sunday.
→ to see
24) I must apologize for not ___ (let) you know earlier.
→ letting

三、分词
分词有现在分词和过去分词两种。
作为谓语,现在分词和be 一起构成进行时;过去分词和be一起构成被动语态,和have一起构成完成时。
例如:
I am reading a novel by Maupassant. 我正在看一本莫泊桑写的小说。(现在分词和be 一起表示主语正在进行的动作。)
Mr. Robinson has drunk five glasses of wine already. 鲁宾逊先生已经喝了五杯酒了。(过去分词和have 一起表示主语已经完成的动作。)
The gold fish bowl was broken by Xiao Tao just now. 金鱼缸刚才被小陶打破了。(过去分词和be 一起表示主语是动作的承受者。)
作为非谓语形式,分词可用作形容词和副词,在句子中充当定语、表语、补语和状语。但它仍保持动词的一般特征,可以有自己的宾语和状语。分词和自己的宾语、状语构成分词短语。
现在分词有一般式和完成式。它的一般式表示和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生的行为或存在的状态;它的完成式(having + 过去分词)表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作或存在的状态。
现在分词有主动语态和被动语态(being + 过去分词)。
过去分词只有一般式,表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作。过去分词(及物动词)本身可以表示被动的含义,因而没有别的被动形式。
例如:
Having failed three times, he didn’t want to try again. (=As he had failed three times, he didn’t want to try again.) 他失败了三次,不想再干了。(having failed 表示发生在前的动作)
Walking along the sands, Crusoe saw in the sand the mark of a man’s foot. (=While he was walking along the sands, Crusoe…) 克鲁索沿着沙滩走的时候,看见沙上有人的脚印。(walking 表示同时发生的动作)
The question being discussed seems important. (=The question is being discussed. It seems important.) 正在讨论的问题似乎很重要。
The old days are gone. 旧时代一去不复返了。(gone 表示完成的状态)
I had my hair cut yesterday. 我昨天理发了。(cut 是及物动词的过去分词,表示“被人理发”。)
分词的否定形式是在分词短语前面加上not, never等否定词构成。
例如:
Not fearing the fire, the child touched and got a finger burnt. 小孩儿不知道怕火,用手去摸,把手指烫了。
Not knowing how to find the subway, I asked a policeman for help. 我不知道怎样找到地铁,就去找警察帮忙。

(一)现在分词和过去分词的区别
(1)在语态上现在分词表示主动的意思,表示它所修饰的人或物的行为;及物动词的过去分词表示被动的意思,表示它所修饰的人或物是动作的承受者。换言之,现在分词是它修饰的成分所作出的动作,过去分词是它修饰的成分所承受的动作。
例如:
convincing facts 有说服力的事实 / convinced audience 被说服了的听众
the exploiting class 剥削阶级 / the exploited class被剥削阶级
a frightening dog一条让人害怕的狗 / a frightened dog一条被吓坏了的狗
driving gears主动齿轮 / driven gears从动齿轮
(2)在时间上,现在分词往往表示动作正在进行,过去分词表示动作已完成。
例如:
the rising sun (正在升起的太阳) / the risen sun(升起的太阳)
the falling rain(正在下的雨)/ the fallen leaves(落下的树叶)
stolen money(被盗的钱/偷来的钱)/ill-gotten wealth(不义之财)
a high-flying kite(高飞的风筝)
再看一些例子:
boiling water 沸腾的水/boiled water 开水/developing countries 发展中国家/developed countries 发达国家/an exciting story 令人激动的故事/ excited people 激动的人们
(2)在时间上,现在分词往往表示动作正在进行,过去分词表示动作已完成。
再看一些例子:
surprising news令人惊讶的消息/a surprised man受惊吓的人/an inspiring leader具有号召力的领袖/the inspired soldiers受到鼓舞的士兵/a delighted speech令人高兴的演说/the delighted audience(感到)高兴的听众/a moving film动人的电影/the moved children受到感到的孩子们/a box containing tea装茶叶的盒子/the tea contained in a box装在盒里的茶叶/ falling snow正在下的雪/fallen snow box落在地上的雪

(3)做表语时的不同。现在分词做表语表示主语所具有的特征,意思是“令人如何”。过去分词多表示主语所处的状态,意思是“感到如何”。
例如:
His lecture is disappointing。I’m disappointed。他的演讲令人失望。我感到失望。
We are surprised to hear the news。The news is surprising。我们听到那消息吃了一惊。那消息令人吃惊。
The situation is encouraging。 We’re encouraged。形式使人鼓舞。我们感到鼓舞。
常用的还有:amusing/amused,astonishing/astonished,disappointing/disappointed,exciting/excited,frightening/frightened,interesting interested,moving/moved, relaxing/relaxed,satisfying/satisfied,shocking/shocked,surprising/surprised,terrifying/terrified,tiring/tired,worrying/worried等等。

(4)做状语的区别,分词短语在句中可做时间、原因、方式、伴随状语。现在分词的动作和谓语动作同时或几乎同时发生、意思是主动的。而过去分词的动作在谓语动作之前发生、意思是被动的。
例如:
Seeing nobody at home,she decided to leave them a note。看到没人在家,她决定给他们留个条。(主动意义,几乎同时)
The secretary worked late into the night,preparing a speech for the president。秘书工作到晚上很晚,给总统准备一篇演说。(主动意义,同时)
Tired of the noise,he closed the window。对噪音感到厌烦,所以他把窗户关上。(被动意义,在谓语之前)
Deeply moved,she thanked me again and again。她深深地受了感动,再三谢我。(被动意义,在谓语之前)
Persuade by my mother,she gladly went there alone。在我母亲劝说下,她才高兴地独自去那里。(被动意义,在谓语之前)
如果现在分词的动作在谓语动作之前发生,现在分词要用完成形式,但意思仍然是主动的。
例如:
Having watered the vegetables,they began to pick up the Apples。=After they had watered the vegetables,they began to pick up the apples。他们浇完了蔬菜之后就开始摘苹果。
Having finished the work,he packed his tools and left。完工后,他收拾起工具走了。
分词做状语时,前面可用连词或介词。
例如:
After eating my dinner quickly,I went to see Jim off。我赶快吃过晚饭就去给吉姆送行。
Though built before the Second World War,the engine is still in good condition。尽管是在二战以前建的,这引擎仍然处于良好状态。
Unless paying by credit card,please pay in cash。如果不用信用卡付款,请用现金付。
Tom will never do this unless compelled。汤姆永远也不会干这种事,除非被逼无奈。
She’s been quite different since coming back from America。从美国回来后,她大变了。

(二)用法
1.作定语。作定语的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前。如果被修饰的词是something,anything,everything,nothing等,则分词放在这些词之后。分词短语通常放在被修饰的名词之后。
例如:
This is an interesting book。(=This is a book。It is interesting。)这是一本有趣的书。
There is something interesting in the news。(=There is something in the news。 It is interesting。)消息中有些有趣的事。
The man sitting by the window is our math teacher。(=The man who is sitting by the window is our math teacher。)靠窗户坐着的那个人是我们的数学老师
The machine run by the old worker is made in Shanghai。(=The machine that is run by the old worker is made in Shanghai。)那位老工人开的机器是上海造的。
Most of students singing were girls。(=Most of the students who were singing…)唱歌的学生多数是女生。
Many of the villagers questioned refused to answer。(=Many of the villagers who were questioned…)被问的许多村里人都拒绝。

注意:(1)分词作定语与动名词作定语的区别:
分词和它所修饰的名词有逻辑上的主、谓关系。动名词则没有这种关系,而表示它所修饰的词的用途或有关动作。
现在分词 动名词
A sleeping child(a child who is sleeping)正在睡觉的孩子 A sleeping car(a car for sleeping)卧车
A flying bird(a bird that is flying)飞鸟 A flying course(a course for flying)飞行课程
A swimming girl(a girl who is swimming)游泳的女孩 A swimming pool(a pool for swimming)游泳池
The running water(the water that is running)流水 The running track(the track for running)跑道
现在分词和它所修饰的名词都要重读,动名词所修饰的名词则不必重读。
(2)现在分词作定语时,它表示动作正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生(或差不多同时发生)。
例如:
Who is the boy dancing over there?在那儿跳舞的少年是谁呀?
The girls swimming in the sea were in danger。 在海里游泳的姑娘们有危险。
如果两个动作在时间上有先后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而往往用主从复合句结构。
例如:
The man who has gone to Shanghai will be back again。到上海去的那个人会回来的。
The teacher wants to talk to the students who smashed the windows。老师要找打破了窗子的那个学生谈话。
(3)be的现在分词being不能用作定语(可用作状语或被动语态中的助动词)。表示这种概念时,也用主从复合句结构。
例如:
He has a brother who is a worker。他有一个当工人的兄弟。

2、作状语。分词和分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、行为方式等意义。表示时间和原因的分词短语相当于对应的状语从句。
例如:
Seeing the teacher entering the room,the students stood up。(=When the students saw the teacher entering the room,They stood up。)学生们看见老师走进房间,都站了起来。 (时间)
Heated,the Metal expands。 (=The metal expands if /when it is heated。)金属受热而膨胀。(条件、时间)
Being excited,I couldn’t go to sleep。(=As I was excited ,I couldn’t go to sleep。)我兴奋得睡不着觉。(原因)
Being a student,he was interested in sports。(=As he was a student,he was interested in sports。)
他是个学生,所以对体育运动感兴趣。(原因)
Inspired by Dr.Yang’s speech,Li Hua and his classmates decided to study physics harder。(=As they were inspired by Dr.Yang’s speech,Li Hua and his classmates decided to study physics harder。)李华和他的同学们受到杨博士讲话的鼓舞,决定更加努力学习物理。 (原因)
The children went away laughing。=The children went away。They laughed as they went。孩子们笑着走开了。(行为方式)
The professor stood there,surrounded by many students。(=The professor stood there。He was surrounded by many students。)教授站在那里,许多学生围着他。(行为方式)
While reading the newspaper,father nodded from time to time。(=While he was reading the newspaper,father nodded from time to time。)看报时,父亲不时地点头。(时间)(分词前,可加表示时间的连词while或when。)

3、作宾语补足语。
例如:
Can you get the machine going again?你能使机器再动起来吗?
You should have your hair cut。你该理发了。
I saw him coming last night。我昨天晚上看见他来了。

4、作表语。
例如:
The film is very moving。这部影片很感人。
Your homework is well done。你的作业做得好。
The visitors looked surprised.参观者看上去很惊讶。
The boys were seen walking on the grass。有人看见孩子们在草地上散步。

5、作句子独立成分(分词有自己的逻辑主语时,称为独立主格结构。)
例如:
Flags flying,the army men marched in the streets。旗帜飘扬,军队在街上行进。
All his ribs broken,he lay half dead。他的肋骨全部折断,半死不活地躺着。
分词(短语)作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致。如果不一致,必须用独立主格结构来表示,也就是在分词前面加上它的逻辑主语。
My wife had a long talk with Sally, explaining why she didn’t want the children to play together我妻子与莎莉谈了很长时间,解释她为什么不想让孩子们在一起玩。(现在分词explaining是句子主语my wife做的动作,它们之间是主动关系)
Given more attention,the trees could have grown better。如果对这些树多关心一些,它们本来会长得更好。(过去分词given表示的动作是句子主语the trees承受的动作,它们之间是被动关系)
We explored the caves,Peter acting as guide。我们到那山洞探险,彼得做向导。 (独立主格)
The train having gone,we had to wait another day。分词短语做状语时,前面可以加上连词或介词,但是分词短语和句子之间不能用并列连词(如but,and),因为并列连词接的是两个并列成分,而分词短语只是全句的一个状语部分。分词和主句之间可用逗号。
例如:
误:Having been told many times,but he still couldn’t understand it。
正:He was told many times, but he still couldn’t understand it。

注意:(1)分词作状语时,逻辑主语即句子的主语;否则要用从句或独立主格结构来表示。
例如:
Looking out of the window,I saw lots of people there。(=When I looked out of the window,I saw lots of people there。)
我往窗外一看,看见那儿有许多人。 (looking out of the window的逻辑主语,就是句子的主语I。)
(2)在see,hear,watch,notice等动词后,用动词不定式作宾语补语,通常表示(强调)动作从开始到结束的全过程。如果用现在分词作宾语补语,则通常表示动作正在进行。
例如:
We sat two hours and watched the teacher make the experiment。我们坐了两个小时,看老师做实验。(两小时一直在看老师做实验)
We passed by the classroom and saw the teacher making the experiment。我们走过教室,看见老师在做实验。(只是在走过教宰的一刹那间,看见老师正存做实验)
I saw him enter the room, unlock a drawer, take out a document, photograph it and put it back。我看见他走进房间,打开抽屉,拿出一份文件,拍了照又放回去(表示一个接一个的一系列动作的全过程时,用动词不定式。
I noticed them sitting in the corner and talking about something secret。我注意到他们坐在角落里在谈论什么秘密事儿。 (表示几个同时正在进行的动作,用现在分词)
(3)在“have+宾语+分词”的结构中,用现在分词或过去分词表示的意义不同。在“have+宾语+现在分词”的结构中,现在分词所表示的动作往往是主体让(叫、使、听任、允许)客体做的,或使客体保持或处于某种状态。
例如:
He had the fire burning day and night。他让火日夜燃烧着。
Father had me swimming the whole summer vacation。父亲让我整个署假天天游泳。
在“have(get)+宾语+过去分词”的结构中,过去分词所表示的动作往往是别人做的或与主体的意志无关。
例如:
Mary had her dress washed。玛丽叫别人洗了她的衣服。(衣服是被洗)
had his legs broken。他的腿骨折断了。(表示与主体意志无关的客观遭遇)
I had my watch stolen yesterday。昨天我的表被人偷了。(表是被偷)
They had Jack beaten。他们叫人打了杰克。(Jack是被打)
(4)分词作表语时,现在分词有“主动”、“进行”、“使”等意义;过去分词有“被动”、“完成”“受”、“感到…”等意义。
例如:
The story is interesting。这个故事很有意思。(故事使人感兴趣)
He is interested in dancing。他对舞蹈感兴趣。
The news was disappointing。这消息令人失望。
They were all disappointed。他们都感到失望。
The work was tiring。那工作累人。
The workers soon became tired。工人们很快就累了。

(5)谓语动词的现在进行时和作表语的现在分词形式相同;被动语态动词谓语和作表语的过去分词形式相同,但两者的意思不一样。
试比较:
They are moving their bed.他们正在搬床。 (are moving是谓语,表示主体的动作)
The story is very moving.这个故事很感人。 (moving是表语,表示主体的特征)
Her homework was done by her sister.她的作业是她姐姐做的。 (was done是谓语动词被动语态)
Her homework is well done.她的作业做得很好。( done是表语)
(6)generally speaking(一般地说),roughly speaking(粗略地说),strictly speaking(严格地说)等现在分词结构都是习惯用语,在句子中作插入语。
例如:
Generally speaking,a footballer of 20 is better than one of 40。
一般地说,二十岁的足球队员比四十岁的强。
(7)分词短语的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,而独立结构的逻辑主语和句子的主语是不同的。
例如:
The last bus having gone,we had to walk home.
末班公共汽车已开走了,我们只好走路回家。

(三)分词的时态和语态
上面已经谈到,过去分词可以表示“被动”和“完成”等意义,因此没有时态和
语态方面的形式变化。下面谈一下现在分词的时态和语态。
1.现在分词的完成式(having+过去分词)表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前或两个动作在时间上有一定的间隔。
例如:
Having written the letter,John went to the post office.
(=After he had written the letter,John went to the post office.
约翰写完信后,就去邮局了。
Having lived in Beijing for years,Lao Wang knows the city quite well.
(=As he has lived in Beijing for years,Lao Wang knows the city quite well.)
老王在北京住了多年,所以对这个城市很熟悉。
Having drunk two glasses of water, Xiao Ma felt a little better.
(=After he had drunk two glasses of water Xiao Ma felt a little better.)
小马喝了两杯水,感觉好一些了
一般式和完成式现在分词都可以表示先后接连发生的动作。在可能引起误解的场合应该用完成式现在分词表示先发生的动作。
例如:
Opening the drawer,he took out his wallet.
(=He opened the drawer and took out his wallet.)
他打开抽屉,拿出钱包。
Coming into the room,he put down his bag.
(=he came into the room and put down his bag.)
他走进房间,放下提包。
Having brushed his teeth,Mr. Brown came downstairs for breakfast.
布朗先生刷过牙,就下楼来吃早饭。
(此句如写成:Brushing his teeth, Mr. Brown came downstairs for breakfast.可能指“边刷牙,边下楼’。)
2.现在分词的被动语态(being +过去分词)通常表示“正在被…”的意思。如强调现在分词表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前时,可用现在分词被动语态的完成式(having + been +过去分词)。
例如:
The bridge being built will be completed next month.正在修建的那座桥将于下月完成。
Having been kept out of the room about half an hour for his returning late,Tom was let in.汤姆回来晚了,所以被关在门外半小时左右才让他进去。

Now let' s do some exercises:
1、用现在分词或过去分词结构改写下列句子:
Examples;
A student is reading a book over there. He is our monitor.
---The student reading a book over there is our monitor.
I saw him. He was running for the bus.
---I saw him running for the bus.
He sat there. He was watching the men at work
---He sat there watching the men at work.
Tom felt tired. He went to bed at once.
---Feeling tired, Tom went to bed at once.
I had worked for a long time, so I felt very tired.
---Having worked for a long time, I felt very tired.
The plan is about middle school education. It is being discussed.
---The plan being discussed is about middle school education.
1)The teacher is taking a walk on the playground. He is our teacher of English.
-----The teacher taking a walk on the play ground is our teacher of English.
2)The birds filled the air with music. They were singing in the trees.
-----The birds singing in the trees filled the air with music.
3) Here is a novel. It was written b Lu Xun.
-----Here is a novel written by Lu Xun.
4) The language is English. It is spoken in Australia.
-----The language spoken in Australia Is English.
5) Do you know the number of students? They are coming to the English Evening.
-----Do you know the number of students coming to the English Evening?
6) I could hear the boys. They were playing in the field.
-----I could hear the boys playing in the field.
7) He was glad to find the fire. It was burning brightly.
-----He was glad to find the fire burning brightly.
8) I watched them. They were dancing.
-----I watched them dancing.
9) I saw a man. He was banging at your door
-----I saw a man banging at your door.
10)Tom rushed into the room. He was covered with snow.
-----Tom rushed into the room, covered with snow.
11)Mary sat on the ground. She talked with Jane.
-----Mary sat on the ground, talking with Jane.
12)I stood at the gate. I was waiting for his arrival.
-----I stood at the gate waiting for his arrival.
13) John put on his raincoat because he saw that it was raining.
-----Seeing that it was raining John put on his raincoat.
14) As he was stepping carelessly off the pavement, he was knocked down by the bus.
-----Stepping carelessly off the pavement, he was knocked down by the bus.
15) He used chopsticks. He ate his dinner.
-----He ate his dinner using chopsticks.
16) As he was going downstairs he tripped on the carpet.
-----Going downstairs he tripped on the carpet.
17) When I was learning English, I had much trouble in pronunciation.
-----When learning English, I had much trouble in pronunciation.
18) As he himself was one of the exploited Pottier shared their bitterness and sufferings.
-----Being one of the exploited himself Pottier shared their bitterness and sufferings.
19) The bridge had been weakened by successive storms and was no longer safe.
-----Weakened by successive storms, the bridge was no longer safe.
20) What is the book? It is being translated.
-----What is the book being translated?
21) As we did not know his address we could not get in touch with him.
-----Not knowing his address we could not get in touch with him.
22) As she had been there many times, she knew the place quit well.
-----Having been there many times, she knew the place quite well.
23) As we had not got a reply from them, we became quite worried.
-----Not having got a reply from them, we became quite worried.
24) Because they had been brought up in the city, they knew little about farmwork.
-----Having been brought up in the city, they knew little about farmwork.
25) He was a League member. He ought to take the lead in such activities.
-----Being a League member, he ought to take the lead in such activities. such activities.

2、 改正下列句子中的错误(注意分词短语的逻辑主语和句子的主语是否一致)。
Example:
Climbing to the top of the hill, there is a magnificent view to be seen.
-----Climbing to the top of the hill, one can see a magnificent view.
-----If one climbs to the top of the hill, there is a magnificent view to be seen.
1)Being Sunday I shall have a quiet day at home.
-----It being Sunday I shall have quiet day at home.
2)Entering the house, the door closed with a bang.
-----Entering the house, he closed the door with a bang.
3)Walking through the park, the flowers made a lovely sight.
-----Walking through the park, we saw a lovely show of flower.
4)Waiting for a bus, a brick fell on my head.
-----As I was waiting for a bus, a brick fell on my head.
5)Having been away from his hometown for more than thirty years, no one recognize him.
-----As he had been away from his hometown for more than thirty years, no one recognize him.

四、使用非谓语动词应注意的问题
1、不定式作状语时常用的句型。动词不定式在句中可用来作目的、结果、原因状语,常用于下列句型中:
(1) in order to和so as to do(以便,为了):
She decided to work harder in order (so as) to catch up with the others. 她决心加紧学习,好赶上别人。
(2)too……to do……(非常…… 以至于不能……)
The boy is too young to join the navy.这男孩太小参不了海军。
(3) ……enough to do……(足以做……)
The hall is big enough to hold 1,000 people.这厅大得足以容纳一千人.
(4)only to do……(不料却……)
They lift a rock only to drop it on their own feet.他们搬起石头却砸自己的脚。
(5)"be+情绪形容词+to do"这个结构,不定式说明产生这一情绪的原因。
We are proud to be trained here in China.在中国受训我们感到自豪。
2、动名词和不定式作主语和表语时的区别动名词和不定式都可以作主语和表语。一般来说,在表示抽象的、一般的行为时,多用动名词;在表示具体某次动作,特别是将来的动作时,多用不定式。但在It’s no use(good),it’s Useless后面常用动名词作主语。
例如
Her present job is teaching music. = Teaching music is her… (泛指)
To teach music to Grade One is her present job. =Her present job is to teach … (特指)
It’s difficult for him to finish the了ob in a week.
Tom’s being late again made me angry. 汤姆又来晚了使我很生气。
It’s no use crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收

3、动名词和不定式作定语时的区别。
作定语时:现在分词和它修饰的名词之间有逻辑上的主谓关系(现在分词可以改为定语从句),可以置于于被修饰词之前或之后,动名词做定语通常表示它所修饰的名词的用途(可以改为for短语),而者不存在逻辑上的主谓关系,它一般只能置于被修饰词之前。
请看几个词组:
现在分词作定语: a sleeping dog=a dog that is sleeping
a flying bird=a bird that is flying
a crying baby=a baby that is crying
boiling water=water that is boiling
动名词作定语: a sleeping bag=a bag for sleeping
a swimming pool=a pool for swimming
a flying suit=a suit for flying
drinking water=water for drinking
4、动名词和不定式作宾语补足语时的区别。在look at,listen to, feel,hear,notice,observe,see,watch等动词后可以用不定式或现在分词作宾语补足语,意义差别不大。现在分词强调动作正在发生、还未结束;不定式只是陈述事实。
例如:
Did you hear someone knocking at the door?你刚才听到有人敲门吗?
Yes I did. I heard him knock three times.是的,我听到他敲了三下.
I saw your father working in your garden yesterday.
昨天我看见你父亲正在花园里干活。
I saw your father work in your garden yesterday.
昨天我见你父亲在园里干活。
〔注意〕find后面可用分词(现在分词和过去分词)作宾补,不用不定式。
如:
正:I found him lying on the ground.
误:I found him lie on the ground.
下列动词常跟分词作宾补:
catch抓住,have让、{吏,keep使处十某状态,get使得,see看见,hear听见,find发现,feel感觉到,leave使处于某状态,make使(只接过去分词),want想要,start引起,notice注意到,observe观察,watch观看、注视,set使处于某状态,等等
5. allow, permit, forbid,encourage,advise的用法相似,具体如下:
(1) 后面无宾语时,接doing,.
例如:
Sorry we don' t allow smoking in the lecture room.对不起,本教室里不许抽烟。
The school doesn' t permit smoking in class.学校不许在课上抽烟。
Mrs. Green forbade smoking in her house.格林夫人禁止在她家抽烟。
The teacher encouraged speaking more English in class.老师鼓励在课堂上多说英语。
(2)后面有宾语时,接to do.
例如:
Tom' s mother will not allow him to watch the film on TV.汤姆的母亲不会允许他在电视上看那个电影。
The school doesn' t permit its students to smoke in class.学校不允许它的学生们在上课时抽烟。
Mrs. Green forbade us to smoke in her house.格林夫人不许我们在她家抽烟。
The teacher encouraged everybody to speak more English in class.老师鼓励每个人在课堂上多说英语。
The doctor advised me to take more exercises.大夫建议我多锻炼。
(3)接doing时,doing前面可以带自己的形式主语(意思上的主语,也叫逻辑主语)
例如:
That teacher doesn' t permit our smoking in his class.老师不允许我们在他讲课时抽烟。(our是smoking的主语)
Paul' s mother will forbid his going with you.保罗的妈妈不会允许他跟你去。
The doctor advised my taking more exercises.大夫建议我多锻炼。
6、非谓语动词的正误辨析:
(1 )正在粉刷的房子将是一家书店。
误: The house painted will be a bookstore
正: The house being painted will be a bookstore.
正: The house that/which is being painted will be a bookstore.
析:现在分词的被动式和过去分词都表示被动意义,但是过去分词表示动作已经完成,而现在分词的被动式表示动作正在进行、还未完成。
(2)他竟然会缺席,这使我感到惊讶。
误:It is astonished to me that he should be absent.
正:It is astonishing to me that he should be absent.
正:I am astonished that he is absent.
析:一般来说,由现在分词转化而来的形容词,有主动意味,说明事物的性质或特征,多可译为令人感到……的;而由过去分词转化而来的形容词,有被动意味或表示已完成的动作,长译为“感到……、觉得……”。
(3)这本书我读起来太难了。
误:The book is too difficult far me to read it
正:The book is too difficult far me to read
析:句子主语是不定式的逻辑宾语,所以应去掉,否则就犯了重复的毛病。
(4) 打开抽屉,他拿出词典。
误:Opening the drawer, and he took out a dictionary.
正:Opening the drawer, he took out a dictionary.
析:并列连词等是用来连接两个或更多个语法作用相同的词、短语、或句子。分词短语和句子之间不能用并列连词。
(5) 他别无选择,只有躺下来睡觉。
误:He has no choice but lying dawn and sleeping.
正:He has no choice but to lie dawn and sleep.
正:He can do noting but lie dawn and sleep.
正:He has nothing to do but lie dawn and sleep.
析:在这种句型中,but和except后用不定式,不用动名词。并且若句中含有动词do时,but,except后跟省掉to的不定式。
(6) 革命意味着解放生产力。
误:Revolution means to liberate the productive farces.
正:Revolution means liberating the productive farces.
析:mean后跟动词不定式表示“意欲/打算”,后面跟动名词表示“意味着”
(7))他在看通知时有了一个主意。
误:When reading the notice, an idea came into his mind.
正:When he was reading the notice, an idea came into his mind.
正:Reading (When reading) the notice, he had an idea.
析:分词的逻辑主语要与句子的主语一致
(8)依据他的说法,这个答案是对的。
误:Judge from what he said, the answer is right.
正:Judging from what he said, the answer is right.
析:“Judging” 在这里是插入语,作独立成分。类似的用法还有to tell, the truth, considering, generally speaking等。
(9)我们尽快地走,希望及时赶到
误:We walked as fast as we could to hope to get there in time.
正:We walked as fast as we could, hoping to get there in time.
析:根据句意,希望hope不表示目的,而表示伴随状况,所以用hoping.
(10)这封需要马上回复。
误:The letter demanded answering immediately.
正:The letter demanded an immediate answer.
正:The letter required (needed) answering immediately.
析:require,need,want作“需要”解时,可跟动名词做宾语。demand作此义解时,不能跟动名词作宾语,要跟名词。
(11)这是80年代建造的工厂之一。
误:This is one of the factories having been built in the 1980s.
正:This is one of the factories built in the 1980s.
析:现在分词的完成式主要用做状语,不做定语。
(12)给我一张纸写东西。
误:Give me a sheet of paper to write
正:Give me a sheet of paper to write on
析:不定式做定语时,如果它所修饰的名词在意义上是不定式的宾语而不是主语的时候,这个不定式的后面应根据意义加上适当的介词。

独立主格结构
独立主格结构由名词或代词加上其他成分(分词、不定式、名词、代词、形容词、副词或介词短语)构成。
独立主格结构没有主语和谓语,所以在语法上不是句子。但多有名词或代词表示的逻辑主语,分词或不定式表示的逻辑谓语,有时还有其他修饰成分。(判断一个结构是否是句子的标准就是看看这个结构是否有谓语动词。)这种结构通常在句子中起方式、时间、原因、条件等状语或状语从句的作用,主要用于书面语。使用动词非谓语形式的独立主格结构可以改为句子形式(从句):独立主格结构加上连词,非谓语动词改为谓语动词形式,这样就成为从句了。
例如:
Today being Sunday, the library isn' t open.今天星期天,图书馆不开放。
(原因)改为从句:
As (Since) today is Sunday, the library isn' t open.
例如:
There being no buses,we had to take a taxi. 没有汽车了,我们只好坐出租车了。
Because there were no buses, we had to take a taxi.
The signal given,the bus started.信号发出后,公共汽车就启动了。
(时间)改为从句:
After the signal was given, the bus started.
The boy followed that man here,and climbed in,sword in hand.少年跟那个人到这里,并爬了进来,手里拿着剑。
The boy followed that man here,and climbed in,and had a sword in his hand.
The mid-term examination is over, the end-of-term examination to come two months later.期中考试结束了,两个月之后进行期末考试.
The mid-term examination is over, and the end-of-term examination is to come two months later.
Weather permitting, we' 11 visit the Great Wall.如果天气允许的话,我们就去参观长城。
If weather permits, we' 11 visit the Great Wall.
The boy followed that man here, and climbed in, sword in hand.少年跟那个人到这里,并爬了进来,手里拿着剑。(伴随状语)
上文例句中sword in hand是由“名词+介词短语”构成,表示伴随的情况。这种表示伴随情的独立主格结构,有时可以用with引出,二者的意思是一样的,with结构更加口语话,更加常用。
She left the office with tears in her eyes.她眼里含着泪水,离开了办公室。
The teacher walked into the classroom, with a ruler under his arm and some books in his hand.老师胳膊底下挟着一把尺子,手里拿着几本书,走进了教室。
The teacher walked into the classroom. He was holding a ruler under his arm and some books in his hand.
Tian' anmen Square looks magnificent with all the lights on.华灯齐放,天安门广场显得美丽动人。
With the boy leading the way, we found his house with no difficulty.由这孩子领路,我们毫不费劲地找到他的家。
With him to give us a lead, our team is bound to turn out well.有他给我们带头,我们对一定能搞好。

1、指出下列句子中的独立主格结构:
1) My work having been finished, I went home.
---My work having been finished
2)The woman sat smiling, surrounded by her flowers, a faraway look in her eyes.
---A faraway look in her eyes
3) My watch having been lost, I didn' t know what time it was.
---My watch having been lost
4) He came into the room, his face red with cold.
--- his face red with cold
5) There an elderly patient was sitting in her wheelchair alone, head bowed, her back to most of the others.
--- Head bowed. her back to mast of the others
6) A man came in, his face hidden by an upturned coat collar and a cap pulled law over his brow.
--- His face hidden by an upturned…….

2、 用独立主格结构改正下列句子:
1) Being cold, he put on his overcoat.
---It being cold, …
2) Being no bus, we had to walk home.
--- There being no bus, ...
3) Getting colder, same birds are flying away to the south.
--- It getting colder, ...
4) Being ill, Mr. Li taught the lesson in place of Mr. Wang.
--- Mr. Wang being ill, Mr. Li taught..
5) Asia is the largest continent, being about 43 million square kilometer.
---…,its size (area) being about 43….

3、 用独立主格结构将括号内的汉语译成英语填空:
1)Bing Bing entered the room, _____ (手里拿着一个大苹果).
---- (with) a big apple in his hand.
2) _____(下课了),the children ran out of the class room.
---The class being over
3) The little girl waited at the bus stop for a long time, _____(鼻子冻得通红).
---her nose red with cold
4) Here comes the Shanghai train, _____ (从福州来的火车)
---the Fuzhou train to come half an hour later.
5) He was doing his homework._____ (他的父亲坐在旁边)
6) ____(谁也没有什么可说的), the meeting was closed.
-----Nobody having any more to say

一致
英语的一致有三种:主谓一致,代词一致,肯定与否定一致
一、主语与谓语的一致
英语语法要求,主语如果是单数,谓语动词也要用单数形式;主语若是复数,谓语动词也要用复数形式
例如:
She likes to eat well.她好吃
We all like good food.我们都喜欢好饭菜。
Everybody was happy with the decision. 人人都对这个决定感到高兴。
I am a doctor.我是个医生。

二、概念一致
1. And连接的两个或多个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式
His opinion and mine are different他的观点和我的是不同的。
Bob and Peter are deadly rivals. Bob和peter是死对头。
What she says and what she does are totally different. 她说的和做的完全不同。
但是如果and连接的是指一个单一概念时,谓语动词用单数。
Bread and milk has been my breakfast for years. 牛奶面包多年来一直是我的早餐。
Her lawyer and old friend is going to marry her.她的律师和老朋友要娶她。
All this effort and sacrifice has come to nothing. 所有这些努力和牺牲都白费了。
由and连接的单数主语分别有many a,ever y,each,no修饰时,动词用单数。
如:During the holidays, every train and every plane was crowded.假期期间每列火车及每架飞机都非常拥挤。
No boy and no girl has the right to refuse education. 男孩和女孩都没有拒绝教育的权利。
Man a man and man a woman was moved b this picture。许多男男女女都被这幅画感动。
2.如果主语是一个抽象概念(如不定式、动名词、主语从句等)谓语动词用单数形式。如果主语是用and连接的两个或多个抽象概念,谓语动词用复数形式。
如:Swimming jogging and cycling are all goad farms of sports exercises.游泳、慢跑和骑自行车都是很好的运动形式。
To live to eat is not a very goad attitude toward life. 活着就是为了吃不是好的生活态度。
To live to eat and to eat to live are very different attitudes toward life.
以what,who,why,haw, whether等wh一词引起的从句做主语时,谓语动词通常用单数;由and连接的两个主句如果指两件事,动词用复数。
例如:What he is doing is not clear yet他在干什么还不清楚
What he is doing and whether I know him are two different things.他在干什么和我是否认识他是两件不同的事。
What she told me is none of your business. 她和我说的什么用不着你管。
What she told me and what she told you are totally different things.
以what从句为主语的“主一系一表SVC"句型中,如果主句的表语是复数,主句谓语动词用复数形式;what从句本身是复数意义,主句谓语动词也可用复数。
如:What I need buy now are four tea cups and a pair of sports shoes.
我需要买的是四只茶杯和一双运动鞋。
What were thought to be five dogs were actually five sheep.
被认为是五条狗的东西实际上是五只羊。
3.集体名词family,class,crew(全体船员或机组人员),crowd, group, committee, audience, government, public, team, staff, population等做主语时,若作为一个整体看待,后面谓语动词用单数; 如就其中每一个成员来考虑时,则用复数。
例如: My family is a big one.我家人多。
My family are all music lovers. 我全家人都爱好音乐。
Eighty percent of China' s population are peasants. 百分之八十的中国人口是农民。
China has a huge population. 中国有众多的人口。
The population of China is the largest in the world. 中国的人口是世界上最多的。
People, police, cattle,(牛),militia(民兵),poultry(家禽),vermin(害出)等作主语时,后面的动词要用复数。
如:There were many people waiting outside. 有许多人在外面等着。
The police are searching far the murderer. 警察在搜捕凶手。
The cattle are grazing in the fields. 一群牛在田野里吃草。
Foliage(树叶),machinery(机械),equipment(设备) ,furniture(家具),merchandise(商品)等通常做不可数名词,动词用单数,
如:The merchandise has arrived undamaged滴品已经到达,毫无损坏。
All the machinery in the factory is made in China. 本工厂里的所有机械都是中国制造的,
4.不定代词either,neither,ever y,each,one,the other, another以及所有的复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词只用单数,包括“every/each/no……and every/each/no……”作主语时。
如:Every/Each plane and every/each pilot is ready to take off.
每架飞机和每个飞行员都已准备好起飞。
No plane and no pilot is ready to take off.
没有一架飞机、没有一个飞行员已准备好起飞。
Here are two books. Either of them is worth reading.
这有两本书,都值得一读。
Neither of these two dictionaries contains this ward.
这两本词典都没收入这个字
Everyone is here. No one is absent. 大家都到了,没有人缺席。
Somebody is using the phone. 有人在用电话。
I have two sisters. One is here, and the other is not here.
我有两个姐妹,一个在这儿,一个不在这儿。
Each day is better than the one before. 一天比一天好。
Either day is OK. 两天中哪一天都行。
5. what,who,which,any,mare,some,half,mast,all,none.等代词可以是单数,也可以是复数,主要靠意思决定。但指不可数名词时作单数看待。
例如:Which is your book? Which are your books?
Here' s same mare (coffee). Here' re same more (tomatoes).
None of the books are/is easy enough for us.
Most of Most of
All of All of
Some of The money was stolen Some of The member was there.
Half of Half of
None of None of
Two thirds of Two third of
由Many a或mare than one所修饰的词做主语时,意义上虽然是复数,但谓语动词用单数形式。none在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数.
如:Many a person is far his plan. 很多人赞成他的计划。
Mare than one people is against his plan. 不止一个人反对他的计划。
6.表示时间、重量、长度、价值等的单位名词,尽管是复数形式,如果作整体看待,动词都用单数形式。如果看作组成该数量的一个一个的个体,则动词用复数。
如:Twenty miles is a long way to walk. 走二十英里可是很长的一段路。
Ten years is a long time。十年很长。
Eight minutes is enough. 八分钟够了。
Twelve dollars is too dear. 十二美圆太贵了。
There are six silver dollars in each of the stacking. 每只袜子里有六个一美元的银币。
7. “the+形容词”表示一类人时,谓语动词用复数。表示抽象概念或指个别事物时谓语动词用单数。
如:The old are well taken care of. 老人得到很好的照顾。
The beautiful is laved by all. 人人都爱美,
The difficulty we do at once. The impassible takes a little loner.
困难的事情我们马上做。不可能的事情需要稍微长一点的时间。
还有the unknown(未知的事物),the unexpected(出乎意料的事),等等。
8. 如果主语由"a kind/sort/type of this kind/sort/type of +名词”组成,不管名词是单数还是复数,动词通常用单数。
如:This kind of man annoys me. =This kind of men annoys me. 这种人让我烦。
This kind of apple is very expensive. = This kind of apples is…这种苹果很贵。
类似的还有:a portion of(一部分),a series of(一系列),a pile of(一堆),a panel of (一个小组委员会),
如:A series of accidents has happened here. 这里发生过一系列事故。
9. Means作“方法、手段”讲时,单复数同形,其前面有each, every, neither, either,等单数a念的定语时,谓语动词用单数;若有all, both,these等复数概念的定语时谓语动词用复数。
“None of the means”作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。
如:There is/are no means of learning what is happening. 没法知道正在发生什么事。
No means is /are left untried. 没有没试过的方法了。
Every means is to an end. 每一种手段都能达到一种目的。
A bicycle is a means of transport. 自行车是一种交通手段。
All possible means have/Every possible means has been tried.所有的方法都试过了。
三、就近一致
1.当主语由either...... or. neither...... nor , not only ...... but(also) 或or连接时,谓语动词通常和最临近的那个主语一致。
例如:Either you or he is to do the work. 不是你就是他来做这件事。
Not only you but also Tom often comes late to class. 不光是你,汤姆上课也迟到。
Neither the children nor the teacher knows anything about it.
孩子们和老师都不知道这件事。
2.当there be结构后面有并列主语时,谓语也和最临近的那个一致。
如:There is a dictionary and many books on the table.
桌子上有一本词典和许多本书。
There' re ten chairs and a table in the house.
屋子里有十把椅子和一张桌子。
Here is a pen, a few envelopes and same paper for you.
这儿有一支笔,几个信封和一些纸给你。
这种就近一致的情况在非正式文体中越来越普遍。但在下列情况不提倡模访。
如:Where is your mother and sisters?
你妈妈和你姐妹到哪儿去了?
Is your sister and her husband coming to see you?
你姐姐和姐夫要来看你吗?
One in ten are expected to take part in the contest.
预计每十个人就有一个要来参加这次比赛。
3.做主语的名词或代词后接with,together with,along with,as well as等短语时,谓语动词一般和前面名词或代词一致。这些短语前后可用可不用逗号。
如:A woman with a baby is coming to the hospital
一个妇女抱着个婴儿正向医院走来。
The girl, as well as the bays , has learned to drive a car.
这个姑娘和那些那孩子一样也学会了开汽车。

二、代词一致
代词一致是指句子中代词应在数、性、人称等方面彼此保持一致,
如:One must do one' s best to increase production.
Everybody talked at the tap of his/their voice.
If anyone calls, tell him I' 11 be back in a moment. (him也可用him or her代替)
在写作中,如果表示不定的人,可以用you, we, one等,需要注意的是:同一篇文章中,只用同一个不定代词,而且所有格要与其一致。

三、肯定与否定一致
下列形容词、副词、代词从肯定句变成否定句时,须作相应的变化:
肯定句 否定句
We've had some money. We haven't had any money.
I was talking to someone I wasn't talking to anyone.
They sometimes visit us. They rarely (never, seldom) visit us.
He has arrived already. He hasn't arrived yet.
Li is coming too. Li isn't coming either.
Both of us are going. Neither of us are going.
He likes both of them. He doesn't like either of them.
注意:“so/neither+助动词/情态动词+名词/代词”结构中须用倒装语序,
如:My wife likes classical music very much and so do.
She doesn' t like jazz and neither do.

Now let' s do multiple choice exercises:
1) __d__ great number of people visit the Palace Museum every day.
a. There are a b. While a c. They are d. A
2) The disabled __b__ trades in special schools.
a. is taught b. are taught c. be taught d. have
3) The captain, as well as the coaches __d__ by Xiao Zhou' s performance in the match.
a. was impressed b. had impressed c. impressed d. be impressed
4) Every means __a__ been tried ever since the machine brake down.
a. has b. have c. are d. is
5) The number of motorcycles __b__ lest the roads became too crowded.
a. are to be limited b. is to be limited c. have to be limited d. to be limited
6) You as well as he __a__ to blame far the accident.
a. are b. is c. have d. has
7) Neither you, nor I nor anyone else __d__ the answer
a. is knowing b. are knowing c. know d. knows
8) The high standard of the nation' s literature, art, and science __c__ widespread attention.
a. was captured b. have captured c. has captured d. were captured
9) No one except his parents __b__ where the bay has gone.
a. know b. knows c. has known d. have known
10) Neither my wife nor I myself __d__ able to teach my daughter to sing English songs.
a. has been b. is c. are d. am
11)My father seldom watches television in the evening. __d__
a. So does my mother b. My mother does either
c. My mother doesn' t too d. Nor does my mother
12) "I am going to visit the Marco Palo Bridge tomorrow." “__b__”.
a. I am so b. So am i c. So go i d. So I go
13)I haven' t read today' s People' s Daily Yet, and I haven' t read today' s China Daily. __c__
a. bath b. too c. either d. neither
14) Mary has lived in London and Manchester, but doesn' t like __b__ very much.
a. both b. either c. the two d. both of
15) Li Hong and I can go to the beach with you. __c__
a. but either can Xiao Wang b. and so Xiao Wang car
c. but Xiao Wan can' t d. and Xiao Wan also can
16) 1f Bob' s wife wan' t agree to go an holiday in winter, __c__
a. neither he will b. neither wan' t he c. neither will he d. he want neither
17) "Do you want to have coffee or tea?" “Oh, __b__ ”.
a. either does well b. either will do c. each is good d. each will be fine
18) "Xiao Zhou plays computer games all the time." "__a__ does Li Hong.”
a. So b. Either c. Neither d. Also
19)I haven' t finished my homework yet, __d__
a. So has he b. Neither he has c. He has too d. He hasn' t either
20)I would like another drink and __b__
a. so does John b. so would John c. John does too d. John will too.

定语从句
所谓从句,就是一个主谓结构相当于整个句子(这样的句子叫复合句)的一个成分,因此,从句不能单独使用。在复合句中修饰名词或代词、作定语的句子叫定语从句。定语从句是中国人学英语的难点之一。
其实定语从句很有规律,总结如下:在关系代词中that既可指人又可指物、既可作主语又可作宾语,因此,除了在非限定性定语从句中,用that一般不会出问题。
关系副词的用法比较单一,它们从句中只起状语的作用,表示时间的就用who门,表示地点的就用where,而why只修饰一个词,即reason。
定语从句所修饰的词叫“先行词”,因为它总是处在定语从句的前头,比定语从句先行一步。
引导定语从句的词叫关系词,包括关系代词和关系副词。
关系代词:
who,which,that作从句的主语
whom,which,that作从句的宾语(可省略)
whose从句中作定语
以下情况只能用that,不能用which:
i. 先行词为不定代词all, little, none,any,every,no,much, anything, nothing
ii. 先行词有最高级和序数词修饰时(包括: the only, the very, the same, the last, the next等)
iii. 先行词既有人又有物的时候
以下情况只能用which,不能用that;
① 引导非限制性定语从句(包括代表整个主句的意思时)
② 介词+关系代词的结构中
关系副词:
when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语
where指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语
why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语,只修饰reason。
如果用定语从句把两个句子合二为一:首先找出两个句子当中相同的部分,定语从句修饰的就是这一部分。要把其中一个句子变成定语从句,就要把这句中相同的那个部分用一个关系词来代替;代替时,先看被代替的部分是指人还是指物、再看它作什么句成分。指人并作主语的,就用who。或that;指人并作宾语的,就用whom或that;指人并作定语的,就用whose。指物并作主语的,就用which或that认指物并作宾语的,还是用which或that认是物并作定语的,就用whose或of which。这样找好并替换以后,再把这个关系代词放到要变成定语从句的那个句子的最前面(被代替的部分不能再保留,其它的词语一律不变),这个句子就变成了定语从句。然后,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,最后,如果还有其它句子成分,就把它们放到定语从句的后面,就行了。
例如:
Have you found the book? You were looking for the book yesterday.
在这两个句子中,the book是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the book。把后面这一句变成定语从句,找个关系词来代替the book;在将要被变成定语从句的名子中,the book是物并作宾语,所以用which或that代替它。
然后把which或that放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,就成了"that/which you were looking for yesterday?”,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了“have you found the book that/which you were looking for yesterday?”定语从句就完成了,主句是问句,所以句末用问号。that/which代替的是原句中的宾语,原句变成了从句,它们仍然作从句的宾语。关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略,因此上句又可变成“have you found the book you were looking for yesterday?”.
请同学们照上面的例子,把下面变定语从句的步骤说出来(括号里的可以省略):
( 1 ) "The dog belongs to the Browns. It ate my fish yesterday."
……The dog which/that ate my fish yesterday belongs to the Browns。
(2) "The lady has gone to the police station. Her car has been stolen."
……The lady whose car has been stolen has gone to the police station.
(3) "I' ve seen the film. His girl friend played the leading role In it.''
……I' ve seen the film {which / that) his girl friend played the leading role in
……I’ve seen the film in which his girl friend played the leading role.
……His girl friend played the leading role in the film {which/that) I’ve seen.
关系副词与此同理。只是关系副词代替的是原句中的状语。在被代替
之前,这个状语中一定要含有一个与另一句相同的成分。
例如:This is the house甲I was barn and brought up in the house.在这两个句子中,in the house是句子里的地点状语,定语从句修饰的就是the house。把后面这一句变成定语从句。在将要被变成定语从句的句子中,in the house是地点状语,所以用where来代替它。然后再把where放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序来代替它。然后再把where放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,就成了"where}was barn and brought up"。再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了"This is the house where I was barn and brought up.”,
定语从句就完成了,主句是陈述句,所以句末用句号。Where代替的是原句中的状语,原句变成了从句,它就作从句的状语。
(4) The hotel is an artistic building. We' 11 stay in it.
……The hotel where we' 11 stay is an artistic building.
……The hotel (which/that) we' 11 stay in is an artistic building.
……The hotel in which we' 11 stay is an artistic building.
(5) Perhaps they' ve heard of the place. We went there for our holidays last time.
……Perhaps they' re heard of the place where we went for our holidays last time.

定语从句
请读者照上面的例子,把下面变定语从句的步骤说出来(括号里的可以省略):
(6)They’re redecorating the room. A conference will be held in the room. →They’re redecorating the room where a conference will be held. →They’re redecorating the room (which /that) a conference will be held in. →They’re redecorating the room in which a conference will be held.
那么,“介词+关系代词”是怎么回事呢?原来上面这个例句,还有一种做法:This is the house. I was born and brought up in the house.在这两个句子中,the house是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the house 。把后面这一句变成定语从句。在将要被变成定语从句的句子中,the house表示物而且是介词in的宾语,所以用关系代词which或that来代替。然后把which或that放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,后面这一句就成了 “which/that I was born and brought up in”。再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了“This is the house which/that I was born and brought up in”。定语从句就完成了,主句是陈述句,所以句末用句号。 which/that代替的是原句中的宾语,原句变成了从句,它们就作从句的宾语。关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略,因此上句又可变成“This is the house I was born and brought up in.”
但是,in可以提到关系代词的前面,不过这时不能用that,而且不能省略。所以上句又可变为“This is the house in which I was born and brought up.”这就是“介词+关系代词”的来历。
定语从句又分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。限定性定语从句把它的先行词限定在特定的意义之内,对先行词起限定的作用、是先行词必不可少的修饰语,没有它,整个句子的意思就会受到影响、就不完整。非限定性定语从句不对先行词起限定的作用,不是先行词必不可少的修饰语,只对先行词起补充说明的作用,没有它,整个句子的意思不会受到影响、仍然完整。非限定性定语从句相当于一个分句,翻译时也是把它当作分句处理的。非限定性定语从句和它的先行词之间要用逗号隔开;而限定性定语从句和它的先行词之间不能用逗号隔开。非限定性定语从句中除了不用that以外,其它关系词都可使用,使用方法与限定性定语从句一样。
例如:The supermarket which was opened two months ago is now closed down.
两个月前开的那家超市现在已经倒闭了。(限定) The supermarket, which was opened two months ago, is now closed down.
那家超市现在已经倒闭了,那家超市两个月前开的。(非限定)
The book(which) you’re reading is mine . 你正在读的那本书是我的。(限定) The book, which you’re reading, is mine. 那本书是我的,你正在读那本书。(非限定)
如果以上例子的差别不十分明显,再看下面的例句: I’ve been to London , which is a beautiful city。 我去过伦敦,那是个美丽的城市。 Your father, whom I respect very much, is a kind old man. 你父亲是个很和善的老头,我很尊重他。 Nanjing, where I lived for five years, is very hot in summer. 南京夏天非常热,我在那里生活过五年。 在以上三例当中,定语从句不就能是限定性的。若变成限定性定语从句,其意就成了“我去过那个是座美丽的城市的伦敦。你那个我很尊重的父亲是个很和善的老头。我在那里生活过五年的南京夏天非常热。”言外之意是还有别的伦敦、父亲和南京。
通过这几个例子我们可以看出,专用名词以及世界上独一无二的东西都不能有限定性定语从句。因为它们的意义本身已经非常清楚,不需要对其进行限定。另外,非限定性定语从句的先行词还可以是整个主句所表达的意义。 如:He did well in the physics exam, which surprised me. 他物理考得很好,这使我很吃惊。 (学地道的英语有两个重要的练习方法:parallel writing, and reverse translation,即平行写作和逆翻译。所谓平行写作,就是模仿英语的句子写类似的句子。而逆翻译就是先把英语译成汉语,或根据汉语的译文,再把汉语翻译成英语,再把英语译文同原文比较,分析差异。这两种方法能避免汉语式英语。)
He did well in the physics exam, which surprised me. 他物理考得很好,这使我很吃惊。 请把这句话逆翻译。有的同学会翻译为:He did well in the physics exam, this surprised me. 这句话错在什么地方呢?错在句法。这句话有两个主谓结构,是两个并列的分句,但没有连词(this 是代词),这就成了串句。
再如:He’s very particular about wording, which I am not. 他很咬文嚼字,而我不。 I said nothing, which made her angry. 我什么也没说,这使她很生气。 Tom didn’t go to the show, which was a pity. 没去看演出,这很遗憾。

下面看看各个关系词的用法: 1.指人的关系代词:who, whom, whose, that 的用法: (1)作主语(who, that ) Those who are going to play in the match are to meet at the gate at 1:30 after lunch. 那些参加比赛的人午饭后1:30在大门口集合。 在本句中,先行词是those;关系代词who引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词are going to play 的主语。 The man who/that is talking with Mr. Wang is a famous doctor. 正在和王先生说话的那个人是一个有名的医生。 在本句中,先行词是the man;关系代词who/that引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词is talking的主语。 这个复合句可以还原成两个句子: The man is a famous doctor. He is talking with Mr. Wang.
(2)作宾语包括作介词宾语(whom, that )。此种情况下的关系代词可以省略; This is just the man(whom/that) I want for the job.这正是我要的做这份工作的人。 在本句中,先行词是the man;关系代词whom/that 引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词want 的宾语。 Is he the manager (whom/that) you are looking for? 他是你在找的那位经理吗? (3)当关系代词紧跟介词作介词宾语时,不能用that,也不能省略, 如:The book from which I got a lot of useful information was written by a famous scientist. 我从中得到许多有用信息的那本书是一位著名科学家写的。 Who is the boy with whom you were talking a moment ago. 你刚才和他说话的那个男孩是谁? I know the young couple from whose house the music is coming.
但是当介词放在从句末尾时,作为介词宾语的关系代词可以用that 并且可以省略。 如上头两句可改为: The book (that /which) I got a lot of information from was written by a famous scientist. Who is the boy (that/whom) you were talking with a moment ago? 2.指物的关系代词which和that的用法: (1)作主语 This is the instruction manual which/that tells you how to operate the computer. 这是那本教你如何操作计算机的说明手册。
(2)作宾语包括作介词宾馆。此种情况下的关系代词可以省略: The chair (which /that) you broke yesterday is now being repaired. 你昨天弄坏的那把椅子现在正在修理。 The film (which/that) I saw last night was about a soldier who fought in WWII. 我昨天晚上看的那部电影是关于一个在二战中打过仗的士兵的。 (本句有两个定语从句。) This is the bike for which I paid $ 100. 这就是我花了100美元买的那辆自行车。 The car(which/that)he went in was a black Cadillac. 他坐在里面走了的那辆汽车是一辆黑色的卡迪拉克。
The accounts of the company, (which/that) I’ve been paying great attention to, are in balance. 我一直非常注意的公司账目,是保持平衡的。 3.whose 和of which 指代人或事物,作定语。of which 可用whose 代替; The car whose lights (of which the lights/the lights of which) were all broken was my father’s. 那辆所有的灯都破了的汽车是我父亲的。
例:His house of which the windows (the windows of which /whose windows) were all broken was a depressing sight. 他那所有窗户都坏了的房子真是目不忍睹。 That is the book whose cover (of which the cover/the cover of which ) was broken. 这就是那本封皮破了的书。 4.关系代词的格应与它在从句中充当的成分一致。特别要注意插入语, 如:Peter is the one who everybody believes will fail to bring off the contract. Peter 是那个人人都认为不能完成合同的人。(everybody believes 是插入语) At the election I voted for the man whom I believed to be the most suitable. 在选举的时候我投了我认为最合适的那个人的票。
5.关系代词作从句的主语时,从句的动词必须和先行词的人称和数一致: 例:These are the operating instructions that/which are written in English 。 这就是用英文写成的使用说明。 Are you staying at the white house which/that is newly completed and which /that has 15 bedrooms, 3 kitchens and 4 toilets? 你是住在那幢刚刚竣工、有15个卧室、3个病房和4个卫生间的白色房子里吗? So far as I know, there are many VIPs who are going to attend the reception. 就我所知有很多达官贵人将出席这个招待会。 6.非限定性定语从句不用that,只用who(whose, whom)和which代表人和物; 例:Her brothers, both of whom work in America, ring her up every week。 她的兄弟们??两个人都在美国工作??每个星期都给她打电话。 The buses, most of which were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd, 那些公共汽车??大多已经坐满了人??被一群愤怒的人围着。
That tower block, which cost five million dollars to build, has been empty for five years. 那个塔楼空着已经5年了。建它花了500万美元。 Cricket, which I know very little about, is a very popular sport in England。 板球是英格兰非常流行的体育活动,我对它知之甚少。 The accounts of the company ,which I’ve been paying great attention to, are in balance. 公司的账目是保持平衡的。我一直非常注意这些账目。 7.关系副词(=介词+关系代词):
关系副词 先行词 在从句中的作用 说明
when(=at / on / in / during which) 时间名词 时间状语 非正式文体中,有时用that代替关系副词
where(=in / at which) 地点名词 地点状语
why=(for which) 只有reason 原因状语
例:I shall never forget the day when (=on which) we first met. 我永远也不会忘记我们第一次见面的那一天。 The rain came at a time when (=at which) it was not needed. 雨下得不是时候。 This is the computer where (=by/on which) he has stolen top-secret documents. 这就是他用来盗窃绝密文件的计算机。 Here is the place where (=at which) the murder took place. 这就是谋杀发生的地方。
He didn’t give any reason why (=for which) I had been fired. 他没给任何解雇我的理由 This is the house in which (=where) my parents used to live. 这就是我父母以前住过的房子。
注意事项: (1)在非正式场合, that有时可用来代替关系副词或相当于关系副词的“介词+which”,而且经常全部省略, 如:In all the years that (=when/during which) I was at collage 在我读大学的那些年里 the reason that(=why/for which)he is not happy 他不高兴的理由 The direction(that)(=in which )the heavenly bodies move can’t be changed. 天体运行的方向是不可改变的。 He is unpopular because people don’t like the offensive way (that)(=in which) he talks. 他不受欢迎的原因是他说话的方式让人讨厌。
(2)是用关系代词还是用关系副词: 关系词(包括关系代词和关系副词)是学习英语定语从句的关键。用关系代词还是用关系副词,一要看关系词在从句当中作什么成分;二要看关系词所代表的是人、物、时间、地点还是原因;三要看所引导的是限定性定语从句还是非限定性定语从句。所以同样的先行词会有不同的关系词,这是因为关系词在从句当中担当的作用不同而决定的。 如:This is the room where/in which we’ll celebrate the New Year. 这是我们将要在里面庆贺新年的房间。(充当地点状语) This is the room(that /which)we’ll celebrate the New Year in. 这是我们将要在里面庆贺新年的房间。(充当介词宾语,可省略。) This is the room which /that will be used for the celebration of the New Year. 这是那个将要被用来庆贺新年的房间。(充当主语) This is the room (which/that) we’ll use for the New Year dinner party. 这是我们将要用来举行新年晚宴的房间。(充当宾语,可省略。)
The reason (that /which) he had given was not sound enough. 他给的理由不够充分。(充当宾语,可省略) The reason why/for which he had done that was not sound enough. 他做那件事的理由不够充分。(充当原因状语)
This is the house where she lives.这是她住的房子。 【比较:This is the house (that/which) she has bought. 这是她买的房子。This is the house that/which I’ve told you is extremely expensive.这就是我和你说过极其昂贵的那幢房子。】
I met him in the year when I was first in Xi’an. 我刚到西安的那年遇到了他。 That is the reason why he did not come that morning. 那就是那天上午他没来的原因。
(3)定语从句中的时态。如果主句是一般将来时或过去将来时,从句的动作与主句的同时发生,那么该从句要用一般现在时表示一般将来时、用一般过去时表示过去将来时。 例:Anyone who/that touches the wire will get an electric shock. 任何碰这根电线的人将受到电击。(不用will touch) I would give her anything that she asked for. 她要什么我就给她什么。(不用would ask) The first person who/that opens the door will get a shock. 第一个开门的人将被吓一跳。(不用will open) There will be a special price for anybody who orders a suit in the next two weeks. 任何人在下两周内定做套装都将享受优惠价格。(不用will order)
但是,如果从句和主句的动作在将来不同的时间发生,则两部分都要用来将来时, 如:Those who will go abroad for training next year will start learning English tomorrow. 那些明年出国受训的人员,将从明天开始学习外语。 注:①先行词有最高级形容词修饰时,常用that,而不用which: 例:Edison was one of the greatest inventors that ever lived. 爱迪生是曾经有过的最伟大的发明家之一。 This is the best film that I’ve ever seen. 这是我曾经看过的最好的电影。 She was the greatest woman that/who has ever lived. 她是曾经有过的最伟大的女人。
②先行词有the same, the very, the first, the last, all, no, the only, much, little, none, any, every等时,常用that, 而不用which: 例:He was the first man that we saw in the village. 他是我们在那个村子里看到的第一个人。 There is little that is interesting. 没什么令人感兴趣。
I still remember the first time that we met. 我仍然记得我们第一次见面的时候。 I’ll do anything (that) I can to help you. 我将尽一切可能帮助你。
Everything that can be done has been done. 能做的一切都做了。 God bless this ship and all who sail in her. 愿上帝保佑此船和所有乘此船航行的人。 All that I can say is thank you very much. 我能说的是(千言万语变成一句话):非常感谢你。
③当先行词既有人又有物时,用that,不用which, 如:We were deeply impressed by the workers and their working conditions that we had visited. 我们参观过的工人及他们的工作条件留下了深刻印象。
We listened to him talk about the men and books that interested him。 我们听他谈论他感兴趣的人物和书籍。
④在same和such之后,定语从句用as引导, 如:Let’s discuss only such questions as concern us. 让我们只讨论与我们有关的问题。 I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从来没听说过他讲的这种故事。
I shall be surprised if he does this in the same way as I do. 如果他做这件事的方法和我一样,那就奇怪了。 She works in the same office as I do. 她和我在同一个办公室工作。
She wears the same kind of clothes as her sister does. 她姐妹俩穿同样的衣服。 He’s wearing the same dress as he wore at Mary’s wedding. 他穿着与他在Mary的婚礼上穿的一样的衣服。
This is the same watch as I have lost. 这块表和我丢的那块一样。 I’ve never seen such kind of people as they are. 我从来没见过像他们这样的人。
I’ve never seen such kind people as they are. 我从来没见过象他们这样厚道的人。 I want the same shirt as my friend’s. 我要一件跟我朋友一样的衬衫。
Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in china. 我们车间使用的这种机器是中国制造的。
但是,如果从句和主句的动作在将来不同的时间发生,则两部分都要用来将来时, 注:④在same和such之后,定语从句用as引导, 偶尔,the same 后面也用that, 如:He’s wearing the same suit that he wore at Mary’s wedding. 他穿着与他在Mary的婚礼上穿的一样的衣服。 She works in the same office that I do. 她和我在同一个办公室工作。 This is the same watch that I have lost. 这块表和我丢的那块一样。
as 引导非限定性定语从句即可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后,用来修饰整个句子。当as在从句中作主语时,后面常接下列句型。如:as is known, as is said, as is reported as is announced 等。 例如:As we all know, Mr. Wang is a good teacher. As is known to all, the earth revolves round the sun. He is tired, as you can see. As I expected, he didn’t believe me.
As 引导非限定性定语从句时与which的区别:当主句和从句语义一致时,用as;反之,用which。 如:He made a long speech, as was expected. He made a long speech, which was unexpected. Tom drinks a lot every day, which his wife doesn’t like at all.
(3)但是,如果从句和主句的动作在将来不同的时间发生,则两部分都要用来将来时, 注:⑤在“介词+关系代词”的结构中,也可用复杂介词,如:by means of (用,依靠),as a result of (作为结果)等: 例:I have three children, one daughter and two sons, all of whom graduated from the same university . 我有三个孩子:一个女儿、两个儿子,他们都毕业于同一所大学。 The police, in whom I have great confidence, are trying to find out who did it. 我对警察有极大的信心,他们正在努力寻找是谁做的这件事。
This is the part of the river in which I like to swim. (in which=where) 我喜欢在这条河里面游泳,这就是(我喜欢游的)那个地方。 The man from whom you bought the house is my uncle. 你从他那里买下房子的那个人是我叔叔。
This is the desk by means of which he jumped over the wall. 这就是他用来跳过墙去的那张桌子。 She was running a fever, as a result of which she failed in the exam. 她当时正发烧,所以考试失败了。 He is the man from whose house the picture was stolen. 他就是那个家里的画被偷了的人。 注:⑥一个先行词后面可以跟一个以上的定语从句,这种现象叫双重关系从句: 例:Here are some words which are often used but which are very confusing. 这里有些常用但非常混乱的词。 He is the only person that I can find who is able to solve the problem. 他是我能找到的唯一解决这个问题的人。

名词性从句
在主从复合句中,从句可以充当主句的主语、表语、宾语或同位语。由于在多数情况下,主语、表语、宾语或同位语这四种句子成分由名词性词类充当,所以,我们把这些作用相当于名词的从句统称为名词性从句,把充当主语、表语、宾语或同位语的从句分别称为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句或同位语从句。也就是说充当什么成分就叫什么从句。名词性从句由连接词(或关联词)引导。 常用的连接词有:
连接词 作用
whether是否
that(本身无词义) 只起连接词作用,引导从句,在从句中不作任何成分
在从句中分别作主语、宾语和定语
who,whom,whose
which哪一个
what什么,所…的 在从句中分别作主语、宾语和定语
在从句中分别作主语、宾语和定语
除了起连接词作用外,还在从句中作状语
when什么时候,where什么地方
how怎样,怎么,why为什么
疑问词(who, whom, whose, what, which, where, why, when, how)可以引导主语、宾语和表语从句。 它们的特点是:1、疑问词有本身的词义;2、疑问词在从句中担当句子成分,如主语、宾语或状语;3、这种疑问词引导的从句一律用陈述语序,不能用疑问语序。 For example: Do you know whom they are looking for? 你知道他们在找谁吗?(宾语从句,陈述语序。不能是whom are they looking for?) I don’t know who did it. 我不知道这是谁干的。(宾语从句。在从句中如果疑问词作主语,其陈述语序和疑问语序一致。) She asked me where I had been. 她问我到哪儿去了。(宾语从句。陈述语序,不能是where had I been. 直接引语,间接引语。注意这句话的时态。)
Can you tell me when the train will arrive? 你能告诉我火车什么时候到吗?(宾语从句。陈述语序,不能是when will the train arrive. 直接引语,间接引语。) I don’t know why he hasn’t come yet. 我不知道他为什么还没来。(宾语从句,陈述语序。不能是why hasn’t he come yet.)
He didn’t tell me what you were doing. 他没和我说你在干什么。(宾语从句,陈述语序。不能是what were you doing.)
What you have done might do harm t other people. 你所做过的事情有可能伤害别人。(主语从句。what 作从句的宾语。陈述语序,不能是what have you done. 如果用疑问语序,意思发生了变化,成了“你做了什么?”。) I don’t know where he is now. 我不知道他现在在哪里。(宾语从句,陈述语序。不能是where is he now.)
Where he went for his weekend is not known. 不知道他去哪里过的周末。(主语从句,where 作从句的地点状语。陈述语序,不能是where did he go for his weekend.) Whose fault this is is not important. 这是谁的过错并不重要。(主语从句,whose 作从句的定语。陈述语序,不能是whose fault is this.)
What I want to know is where he has gone for his weekend. 我想知道的是他到哪里度周末去了。(这句话包含两个名词性从句:what I want to know是主语从句,what 在从句中作宾语,从句用陈述语序,不能是What do I want to know. Where he has gone for his weekend 是表语从句,where 在从句中作状语,从句用陈述语序,不能是where has he gone for his weekend.)
下面我们再分别讲述主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句和表语从句。
主语从句
1.that 引导主语从句时,that 没有意义,但不能省略。(that 引导宾语从句时可以省略。) For example: It worried her a bit that her hair was turning gray. 她的头发正在变白,这使她很不安。that引导主语从句,it 作形式主语,that 不能省略。 That she is a rich woman is known to us all. 众所周知,她是个富有的女人。这是that 引导主语从句,that 不能省略。这句话可以改为用it 作形式主语的句型。请同学们改写:It is known to us all that she is a rich woman.) We didn’t know (that) you had sold your house. 我们不知道你已经把你的房子卖了。这是that引导宾语从句,that 可以省略。注意这句话的时态。
2.从句作主语时,多数情况下由 it 作形式主语,而把主语从句放在后面,尤其是谓语部分(包括宾语)较短的情况下。 For example: It wasn’t very clear what she meant. 不清楚她是什么意思。 It is important that he should come on time. 他按时来是很重要的。 It is true that that man on the left is a well-known writer here. 左边那个人是本地的一位著名作家,这是真的。这里,第一个that 引导主语从句,是单纯的连词,无词义,不作句子成分。第二个that 是指示代词,作句子成分,是man 的定语。
3.whether 既可以引导主语从句也可以引导宾语从句,但if不能引导主语从句。whether 后面可以加or not, 而if 不能与or not 连用。作介词宾语时不用if. For example: Whether I knew John doesn’t matter. = It doesn’t matter whether I knew John. 我是否认识约翰没有关系。 Whether or not she’ll come isn’t clear. = Whether she’ll come or not isn’t clear. = It isn’t clear whether …. 她是否来还不清楚。 It all depends on whether we can get their cooperation. 这是主语从句还是宾语从句?it 是形式主语吗?it 是代词,whether 引导的是宾语从句,作介词on 的宾语,不能用if引导。请翻译这句话。这完全取决于我们是否能得到他们的合作。 I worry about whether I hurt her feelings. 宾语从句,介词宾语,不能用if 引导。请翻译这句话。 She asked me whether/if you were married. 宾语从句,既可以用whether, 又可以用if 引导。注意时态的对应。请翻译这句话。 We haven’t decided whether/if we shall give them aid. I’m not sure whether/if the report is believable.
Now let’s do some translation: 现在还很难预测谁会赢得下一届总统选举。 It is still hard to predict who will win the next presidential election. 对于多数公民来说,谁当选总统无关紧要。 Who will become the president doesn’t matter much to most citizens. 这位前总统是否会被判处死刑还有待观察。 It remains to be seen whether the ex-president will be sentenced to death. 真可惜,王教授不能出席我们的英语晚会。 It is a pity that Prof. Wang can’t attend our English Evening. 我们需要的是更多的时间。 What we need is more time.
宾语从句
在谓语动词、介词、动词不定式、分词、动名词之后都可以带有宾语从句。某些形容词如sure, happy, glad, certain, pleased 等之后也可以带有宾语从句。 1.that 引导的宾语从句: that 没有意义,在口语或非正式文体中常省略:如: I really feel she’s making a mistake. 我的确感到她正犯错误。 James said (that) he was feeling better. 詹姆斯说他感到好些了。 Hearing that his son was badly wounded, he hurried to the hospital to see him. 听说儿子受了重伤,他急忙赶到医院去看望他。 I suggested that we should go home. 我建议我们回家去。虚拟语气,that 一般不能省略。
2.whether/if (是否)引导的宾语从句:如果要突出“究竟是…还是不…”,常在whether 后面加or not; if 一般不与or not连用。如: He asked me if/whether I knew John. 他问我是否认识约翰。 Let me know whether you can come or not. 你能来还是不能来,告诉我一声。
3.在think, believe, suppose, expect 等动词的宾语从句中,否定不用在从句中,而是将think 等词变为否定形式。 For example: I don’t think the film is interesting. 我觉得这部电影没什么意思。 I don’t suppose we are going outing tomorrow. 我认为我们明天不会出去郊游。
4.如果从句作宾语而后面还有补语,为了保持句子的平衡,用it 作形式宾语,而将宾语从句放在句尾。常跟这样的复合宾语的动词有:make, find, see, hear, feel, think, consider, regard, take….for granted等。如: George made it clear that he opposed this project. 乔治已明确表示他反对这个项目。it 代表that 引导的句子,作宾语,clear 是宾语补足语。 They kept it quiet that he was dead. 对他已经死亡的消息,他们秘而不宣。 I took it for granted that you’d stay with us. 我想当然认为你会和我们呆在一起。

同位语从句
同位语从句是对名词的内容给予具体、详细的说明。常在后面接同位语从句的名词有fact, news, idea, truth, hope, suggestion, question, problem, doubt, fear, belief等。同位语从句常用的引导词为that,有是也用when, where 等疑问词。如: The news that the United States was hit by terrorist attacks took the whole world by surprise. 美国受到恐怖主义分子袭击的消息令全世界吃惊。 The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong. 你认为不动脑筋就能做好这件工作的想法是完全错误的。 People used to hold the belief that the earth was the center of the universe. 人们曾认为地球是宇宙的中心。
The difficulty lies in the fact that we are short of money. 困难在于我们缺乏资金这个事实。 They have no idea at all where he has gone. 他们一点儿也不知道他去哪儿了。
注意:同位语从句的that 只是引导词,没有其他语法作用,在句子中不作句子成分,不能省略;而定语从句中的that 除了引导定语从句外,还是定语从句的一个成分,在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不能省略,作宾语时可以省略。如: The idea that some peoples are superior to others is sheer nonsense. 有些民族优越于其他民族这种想法简直荒谬。(请辨别是同位语从句还是定语从句。)(同位语从句) The idea that he proposed at the meeting is sheer nonsense. 他在会议上提出的这个想法简直荒谬。(请辨别是同位语从句还是定语从句。)(定语从句)
No one is happy with the fact that he found out. 没有人对他发现的事实感到高兴。(请辨别是同位语从句还是定语从句。)(定语从句) No one is happy with the fact that he will become their boss. 没有人对他将成为他们的老板这一事实感到高兴。(请辨别是同位语从句还是定语从句。)(同位语从句)
表语从句
表语从句位于主句的连系动词之后,在非正式文体中引导词that可以省略。如: That’s not what I want. 那不是我要的。 That’s why I have come. 那就是我为什么来了。 My opinion is that things will improve. 我的意见是事情会好起来的。 One advantage of solar energy is that it will never run out. 太阳能的一个优点是永远也不会枯竭。 The truth is that he didn’t really try. 实际情况是他没有真正努力。 The problem is who is to pay and when we can start. 问题是谁来付帐、我们又何时开始。 The fact is that he didn’t notice the car until too late. 事实是他注意到车时已经太晚了。 What surprised me was that he spoke English so well. 使我感到吃惊的是他英语讲得那么好。 All I can say is that I have nothing to do with it. 我能说的就是我与此事没有关系。 What I want to know is where we shall go and whether she will join us. 我想知道的是我们要去什么地方以及她是否加入我们。
表语从句位于主句的连系动词之后,在非正式文体中引导词that可以省略。如: The fact is that he didn’t notice the car until too late. 事实是他注意到车时已经太晚了。 What surprised me was that he spoke English so well. 使我感到吃惊的是他英语讲得那么好。 All I can say is that I have nothing to do with it. 我能说的就是我与此事没有关系。 What I want to know is where we shall go and whether she will join us. 我想知道的是我们要去什么地方以及她是否加入我们。
此外,表语从句还可由as if (好像)引导。如: It looked as if it was/were going to rain. (虚拟语气) Now let’s do some translation: 这就是她昨天请一天假的原因。 That is why she had a day off yesterday. 我的想法是,个人的权利应该得到充分尊重。 My idea is that individual rights should be fully respected. 问题在于上帝是否真的存在。 The question is whether the God really exists. 我想知道的是,他是如何在这么短的时间内完成这个项目的。 What I want to know is how he managed to complete the project in such a short time.
形容词后的that 从句
that 引导的名词性从句还可以用在一些形容词后面。这种句型一般都用人作主语,所用的形容词都是表示思想状况或感情色彩的形容词,如certain, sure, positive, afraid, convinced, anxious, disappointed, worried, glad, happy, sorry, amazed, surprised, aware, doubtful, confident等等。如: I am sure/certain that he’s at home now. 我肯定他现在在家。 He became angry that you made the same mistake. 你犯了同样的错误,他生气了。 He remains confident that he will win. 他仍然自信他会赢 She is aware that I can’t help her. 她知道我帮不了她的忙。 I am glad that you’ve come. 你来了我很高兴。
He appeared/seemed surprised that I said “no”. 我说不,他似乎很吃惊。 I am afraid that I can’t promise you anything. 恐怕我不能向你保证什么。
We were rather disappointed that you were not able to come yesterday. 昨天你没能来我们有点失望。 I am a bit worried that she will not be able to make it. 我有点担心她做不成这件事情。

what 从句的小结
1.意思是“所….的事/物”, 相当于the thing(s) that…, that which…, 或those which… 可以用于以下情况: (1) 引导主语从句。如: What she saw frightened her. 她看到的事情吓了她一跳。 What was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality. 曾经被认为不可能的事情,现在已经变成了事实。 What I’m afraid of is their taking him to that place. 我怕的是他们带他到那地方去。 What we are worrying about is just her innocence. 我们担心的是她的幼稚。
But what hurt our feelings most was the personal comment of the judge. 最伤我们感情的是法官的私下评论。 What will be, will be. 要发生的事总是要发生的。(谚语) What is gone is gone. 过去的事就过去了。
(2) 引导表语从句。如: That’s what I hope. 那就是我希望的。 I should like to be a teacher. That’s what I want to be. 我想当老师,那是我想干的事。 Times are not what they used to be. 时代不同了。 He’s not what he was a few years ago. 他不是几年前的他了。 Your health is not what it ought to be. 你的身体应该更好。
(3) 引导宾语从句,包括介词宾语。如: He could not express what he felt. 他不能表达他的感受。 Well, I’ll do what I can. 好吧,我尽力。 I can’t do what you’ve just asked of me. 我不能做你刚才要求我的事。 And having got what he wanted, he took his hat and went away. 得到了他要的东西,他拿上帽子就走了。 As a friend of yours, I want to tell you what I hear. 作为你的朋友,我想告诉你我所听到的。
The father began to criticize what the boy had done. 父亲开始批评男孩所做的事。(注意时态) She was not happy at what he had said. 她对他说的话不高兴。 Don’t poke your nose into what doesn’t concern you. 不要多管闲事。 The city is different from what it was ten years ago. 这座城市和十年前不同了。 It was a small place then compared to what it is now. 和现在比起来,它那时候是个小地方。
The father began to criticize what the boy had done. 父亲开始批评男孩所做的事。(注意时态) She was not happy at what he had said. 她对他说的话不高兴。 Don’t poke your nose into what doesn’t concern you. 不要多管闲事。
The city is different from what it was ten years ago. 这座城市和十年前不同了。
It was a small place then compared to what it is now. 和现在比起来,它那时候是个小地方。 I don’t care about money or what people call position. 我不在乎金钱或者别人所谓的地位。 Philip was depressed by what he had gone through. Philip经历过的事情使他很消沉。 They paid fifty percent of what they were able to earn to the state. 他们能挣来的东西,百分之五十交给了国家。
2.用作插入语,指代后面的成分。这和非限定性定语从句正好相反,非限定性定语从句指代的是前面的成分。如: Then I discovered, what was news to me, that his wife was Mary’s niece. 后来我发现,他妻子原来是Mary的侄女,这对我是个新闻。 He never joined in the usual sports of the boys, and, what is remarkable, never went out in a boat on the river. 他从来不参加男孩子通常做的体育活动,更奇怪的是,他从来不坐船出去到河上面去。 He’s an interesting speaker, and, what is more important, he knows his subject thoroughly. 他讲话生动有趣,更重要的是,他对课题了如指掌。
He went to the meeting and, what was worse, insisted on speaking. 他去参加了会议,而且更糟糕的是,他坚持要发言。 It is a useful book, and, what is more, not an expensive one. 这是本很有用的书,再说也不贵。 You’ll have nobody but yourself to blame, and, what’s more, you’ll get no sympathy from anybody. 你怪不着别人,只能怪你自己;还有,你得不到任何人的同情。 We invited a new speaker and, what’s more, he was happy to come. 我们请到了一位新的发言人,而且他很乐意来。
3.引导让步状语从句,等于“不管什么…”。注意状语从句的语序。如: Do what she would, she could not invent a reason for not going. 不管她会做什么,她都编不出不去的理由。状语从句把实义动词放在句首,句子倒装。=No matter what she would do, … Come what may, you’ll always keep it secret. 无论怎样,你都要保守秘密。=No matter what may come, …. Jack has made up his mind that, come what might, he would stay there. Jack已经拿定主意,无论如何他也要呆在那里。=…no matter what might come, … Say what he will, in his heart he knows that he is wrong. 不管他怎么说,内心里他知道自己错了。= No matter what he will say, …

练 习
关于名词性从句我们就讲到这里。Now let’s do some exercises related to this part: 一、选择最佳答案填空 1.______ he always serves the people very well is known. A. What B. That C. Which D. Who 2.______ you have done might do harm to other people. A. What B. That C. Whether D. Which
3.I don’t care ____ she has no money. I care____ she is honest or not. A. if…if B. whether…whether C. if…whether D. whether…if 4. They found at last ____ they had been looking for. A. that B. what C. where D. which
5. He will be here on time. But I’m not sure _____ he drives or takes the train. A. whether B. if C. when D. how 6. The reason why he was late is ___ he got up too late. A. that B. because C. as D. for
7. I want to know ____ the leather coat belongs to. A. who B. which C. that D. whom 8. Can you tell me ___ the hospital is? A. where B. who C. that D. whether
9. We all know ____ she will be our English teacher. A. which B. what C. that D. who 10. I wish _____ he would pass the examination. A. how B. whether C. when D. that

二、把两个单句合成主从复合句
model: Does he live there? Could you tell me? →Could you tell me whether (if) he lives there?
1. Can Mike write a little Chinese now? I want to know. →I want to know whether/if Mike can write a little Chinese now. 2. Did Jenny try to explain why she was late? Can you tell us? →Can you tell us if/whether Jenny tried to explain why she was late?
3. Did the monkey want to eat bananas? Do you know? →Do you know if/whether the monkey wanted to eat bananas? 4. Do you like sports? I ask you. →I ask you if/whether you like sports.
5. Does she play basketball? Do you know? →Do you know if/whether she plays basketball? 6. Has the whole street been cleaned? I don’t know. →I don’t know if/whether the whole street has been cleaned.
7. Were there a lot of people in the street? Can you tell me? →Can you tell me if/whether there were a lot of people in the street? 8. Are they preparing for the sports meet? Do you know? →Do you know if/whether they are preparing for the sports meet?
9. Had John told Mr. Smith about his past? Could you tell me? →Could you tell me if/whether John had told Mr. Smith about his past. 10. Has anybody ever been into some of the pyramids? Please tell me. →Please tell me if/whether anybody has ever been into some of the pyramids.

强调
Hello, everyone. 英语的强调主要有两种:一是强调非谓语(包括主语、宾语、状语等);二是强调谓语动词。

一、强调非谓语
其基本句型是:“It + is/was + 被强调的成分 + that/who + 其她成分”。It 没有实意,只起语法作用,引导被强调的部分。当被强调的是人时,可用who(m)/that, 其他情况用that。 例如: It was I who/that met Jack yesterday. 是我昨天碰到了Jack. (强调主语) It was Jack that/whom I met yesterday. 我昨天碰到的是Jack。 (强调宾语) It was yesterday that I met Jack. 是昨天我碰到了Jack. (强调时间状语) 这几句话复原为非强调句就是:I met Jack yesterday. It is people, not things, that are decisive. 决定的因素是人,不是物。 (强调主语) It is because the book is very important for my present job that I bought it. 是因为这本书对我目前的工作很有用,我才买了它。 (强调原因状语) It was in the supermarket that I gave the book to him. 是在那家超市里我给了他那本书。(强调地点状语)
1.强调主语: It was John who broke the window. 是John打破了窗子。 原句:John broke the window. It is this overpass that will be pulled down. 将被拆掉的是这个天桥。 原句:This overpass will be pulled down. It is the people who/that are really powerful. 真正有力量的是人民。 原句:The people are really powerful.
2.强调状语:
(1)强调时间状语。 例如: It was at that moment that he changed his mind. 是在那一刻他改变了主意。 It is every day that Professor Smith goes swimming. 史密斯教授是天天去游泳。 It was not until Saturday that he began to prepare for the examination. 他直到星期六才开始为考试作准备。 注意:这句话的原句是He did not begin to prepare for the examination until Saturday. 变成强调时间状语,注意 “not” 位置的变化。
(2)强调地点状语。 例如: It was in the library that I met Jack yesterday. 是在图书馆我昨天碰到了Jack. 原句:I met Jack in the library yesterday. It might have been on the bus that I lost my purse. 可能是在公共汽车上我丢失了钱包。 原句是:I might have lost my purse on the bus. 强调地点状语,也可改为:It was on the bus that I might have lost my purse. It was under the tree that I was sitting then. 当时我正坐在那棵树下。
3.强调宾语。 例如: It was Tom’s bike that she borrowed, not mine. 她借的是Tom的自行车,不是我的。 It is his dog that he’s sold, not his car. 他已卖掉的是他的狗,不是车。 It was a cat that your dog was running after. 你的狗追的是只猫。
4.强调宾语补足语: 例如: It was wonderful that we considered his plan. 我们认为他的计划是绝妙的。 It is Lincoln that they named the aircraft carrier. 他们把那艘航母命名为林肯号。 It was captain that the team chose him. 那个队选他当的是队长。 It was white that Tom was painting the fence. 汤姆当时正在把篱笆涂成白色的。 这句话的原句是: Tom was painting the fence white. 类似的结构有:color the sun red, color the tree green, paint the wall pink 等,这里,颜色作宾语补足语。 It is a fine player that we believe Jane. 我们相信Jane是一个出色的选手。 It is the Buckingham Palace that the British Queen’s office building is called. 英国女王的办公大楼被称作白金汉宫。 It is Cadillac that this car is named. 这辆车被命名为卡迪拉克。

二、强调谓语动词
用“助动词do + 动词原形”来强调谓语动词。 注意:谓语动词只有两种时态能强调,即一般现在时和一般过去时。在一般现在时中,do有人称的变化,第三人称单数用does,一般过去时do 变成did。其他时态的强调通过重读谓语动词来体现。 例如: You’re quite wrong?she does like you. 你错了,她真的喜欢你。 Do come in. 快进来。
用“助动词do + 动词原形”来强调谓语动词。
1.强调一般现在时动词谓语: 例如: I work hard. → I do work hard. She loves you. → She does love you. My father smokes a lot. → My father does smoke a lot.
2.强调一般过去时动词谓语: 例如: I called you in the morning. → I did call you in the morning. I attended the meeting yesterday. → I did attend the meeting yesterday. I handed in the paper yesterday. → I did hand in the paper yesterday. He wrote a letter to me yesterday. → He did write a letter to me. He came to see you yesterday. → He did come to see you yesterday.

三、其他表示强调的方式
1.把要强调的部分放在句首: 例如: That film?what do you think of it? Asleep, then, were you?
2.用某些特殊的词来表示强调,如really, certainly, definitely, very等。在口语中,such 和so 都常用于强调句。 如: Thank you so much. It was such a lovely party. I really enjoyed it. This is the very book that I am looking for. 我要找的就是这本书。

练习
把下列句子改成强调句,强调黑体词部分;然后把第1-8句和第10句改为强调动词谓语的句子。 1)Mary gave me the news. →It was Mary who gave me the news. 2)We went to the Great Wall the day before yesterday. →It was the day before yesterday that we went to the Great Wall.
3)I want you to repair the bike for me. →It is the bike that I want you to repair for me. 4)The days begin to get longer in February. →It is in February that the days begin to get longer. 5)We held a meeting in the room yesterday. →It was a meeting that we held in the room yesterday. 6)I met Mr. Li in the bookshop. →It was Mr. Li that I met in the bookshop. 7)My parents began to learn to read and write after liberation. →It was after liberation that my parents began to learn to read and writed. 8)I joined the party in 1985. →It was in 1985 that I joined the party. 9)She will be waiting for me at the gate. →It is at the gate that she will be waiting for me. 10)Li Hong and Zhang Ming cleaned the classroom this morning. →It was Li Hong and Zhang Ming who cleaned the classroom this morning.

把下列句子改为强调动词谓语的句子。 1)Mary gave me the news. →Mary did give me the news. 2)We went to the Great Wall the day before yesterday. →We did go to the Great Wall the day before yesterday. 3)I want you to repair the bike for me. →I do want you to repair the bike for me. 4)The days begin to get longer in February. →The days do begin to get longer in February. 5)We held a meeting in the room yesterday. →We did hold a meeting in the room yesterday. 6)I met Mr. Li in the bookshop. →I did meet Mr. Li in the bookshop. 7)My parents began to learn to read and write after liberation. →My parents did begin to learn to read and write after liberation. 8)I joined the party in 1985. →I did join the party in 1985. 9)She will be waiting for me at the gate. →将来时,通过重读谓语进行强调.

倒装
英语句子的语序一般是固定的:主语在前,谓语在后,这叫陈述语序。谓语的全部或一部分(助动词或情态动词)放在主语之前的现象称为倒装。倒装有两种情况:语法倒装和修辞倒装。因为语法结构而必须倒装的,叫语法倒装;为达到某种修辞目的而倒装的,叫修辞倒装。我们学习倒装的主要目的是增加对英语句式多样性的认识,以便在写作和口语中使用,这也是我们学习英语语法的主要目的。
一、语法倒装 1.一般疑问句和特殊疑问句要倒装 例如: Shall I open the door? 要我开门吗? Are you cold? 你冷吗? Can you read this poem in German? 你能用德语朗诵这首诗吗? Which of the pictures do you like best? 你最喜欢哪张画? How are you getting along? 你目前怎么样? When will there be lasting peace in the world? 什么时候世界上才能有持久的和平? 2.There be 句型当中。There be 句型表达的意思是:“某处有….”。这个句型的主语在谓语动词后面,因此这是倒装语序。 例如: There are not many people who want to read this book. 想看这本书的人不多。 There once lived a pack of wolves in this cave. 在这个洞里曾经住过一群狼。 There happened to be a taxi parked at the gate. 碰巧门口停着一辆出租车。 There is going to be a change in our arrangement. 我们的安排将有一个变化。
3.当连词as 表示“虽然、尽管”引导让步状语从句时,句子要倒装,as 相当于though,可以替换。 如: Small as/though the atom is, we can smash it. 尽管原子很小,我们可以击碎它。 Tired as/though he was, he went on working. (=Although he was very tired, he went on working.) 虽然他很累,他还是接着工作。 Cold as/though it was, we went out. 虽然天气冷,我们还是出去了。 Child as/though she is, she knows a great deal. 她虽然是个孩子,但她懂得很多。 Teacher as he is, he knows little about teaching. 尽管他是个老师,但不懂什么教学。 Pilots as he claims he is, no one has ever seen him fly a plane. 尽管他声称是个飞行员,但谁也没见过他非飞机。 注意后四句是可数名词单数作表语并提前,习惯上不用冠词。 翻译练习: 尽管他自己受伤了,但他还是尽力帮助别人脱险。 →Wounded as he himself was, he still tried to help others to safety. 尽管他很有名,但他很平易近人。 →Famous as he is, he is easy going. 尽管他是囚犯,他行为举止仍像个国王。 →Captive as he is, he still behaves as if he were a king/behaves like a king. 4.虚拟语气条件从句中的if 被省略时,要把从句中的were, had 或should 移到主语之前。(if 的省略、倒装只限于从句中有were, had 或should这三个词时。) 例如: If I had been in your place, I wouldn’t have given it up so early. =Had I been in your place, I wouldn’t have given it up so early. 如果我在你的位置,我不会这样早放弃。 If he were to succeed, the sun would rise from the west. =Were he to succeed, the sun…. 如果他能成功,太阳就会从西边出来。 If you should be asked about this, say that you know nothing. =Should you be asked about this, say…… 如果有人问起你这件事,你就说你什么也不知道。 Were there no air or water, there would be no life on the earth. 如果没有空气和水,地球上就不会有生命。 Had you been more careful, you might have avoided the mistake. 如果你再细心点,本来事可以避免这个错误的。 5.以so开头的,表示“也一样”,“也这样”的句子要倒装。So 用于肯定句,代替上文中的形容词、名词或动词,通常指前面所说的肯定情况也适用于其他人或物。结构是“so + be (do, have 其他助动词或情态动词)+主语”。 如: Production is going up, so is the people’s standard of living. 生产不断发展,人们的生活水平也一样。 Society has changed and so have the people in it. 社会变了, 社会上的人也变了。 Coal is under the ground, and so is oil. 煤在地底下,石油也是。 He saw it, and so did I. 他看见了,我也看见了。 They can swim now, and so can we. 他们现在能游泳,我们也能。 We must start for the work-site now. So must you. 我们该动身去工地了,你们也该去了。 注意:如果只是对前句的内容表示同意,则不要倒装。 如: It was hot yesterday. ?So it was! 昨天很热。是的。 He works very hard. ?So he does. 他工作很努力。是的。
Tomorrow will be Monday. ?So it will. 明天星期一。对。
翻译下列句子: 1)我会说英语。我弟弟也会。 →I can speak English. So can my brother. 2)他们上星期日到颐和园去了。我们也去了。 →They went to the Summer Palace last Sunday. So did we. 3)他去过长城。我也去过。 →He has been to the Great Wall. So have I. 4)她喜欢教英语。我姐姐也喜欢。 →She enjoys teaching English. So does my sister. 5)你说他很努力,对,他确实很努力,你也一样。 →You say he works hard. So he does, and so do you. 注意:在so…..that…..结构中,如果so 在句首,通常也用倒装结构。 例如: So easy is it that a boy can learn it. 那很容易,小孩子都能学。 (原句是:It is so easy that a boy can learn it.) So rapidly did he speak that we could hardly understand him clearly. 他说得很快,我们简直听不清楚。 (原句是:He spoke so rapidly that we could hardly understand him clearly.)
6.以neither与nor开头的句子,表示“…也不”时,句子倒装。Neither 与nor 意思相同,可以互换。Neither, nor 用于否定句,通常指前面所说的否定情况也适用于其他人或物。结构是:Neither (nor) + be (do, have, 其他助动词或情态动词) +主语。 例如: I won’t do such a thing. Nor/Neither will anyone else. 我不会做这样的事,别人也不会。 The first one wasn’t good and neither was the second. 第一个不好,第二个也不好。 I won’t go there. Neither will she. 我将不去那里。她也不去。
翻译练习: 1)我不知道他住哪儿。她也不知道。 I don’t know where he lives. Neither does she. 2)我不知道这两个句子的区别。?他们也不知道。 I don’t know the difference between these two sentences. Nor do they.
3)我昨天晚上没有写作文。魏芳也没写。 I didn’t write my composition yesterday evening. Neither did Wei Fang. 4)学生们不在教室里。老师也不在。 The students were not in the classroom. Nor was the teacher.
7.以here, there, now, then 等副词开头的句子中。习惯上用一般现在时(除以then开头的句子用过去时)。 例如: There comes the bus! 汽车来了。 There goes the bell. 铃响了。 Now comes your turn. 该轮到你了。 Then came a new difficulty. 接着来了个新难题。
Then followed three days of heavy rain. 后来连着下了三天大雨。
Up went the plane. 飞起来了飞机。
Our rushed a cat from under the bed. 从床底下窜出一只猫。
Here is a letter for you. 这儿有你一封信。
注意:在这种句型中,如果主语是代词时就不倒装。 例如: Here you are. 给你。 There he comes. 他来了。 Here it is. 这就是。 8.在表示祝愿的句子中。 如: May you have a pleasant trip. 祝你旅途愉快。

二、修辞倒装 1.在以never, hardly, scarcely, rarely, barely, seldom, not only, not until, nor, little, nowhere, hardly….when, no sooner….than, by no means, under no circumstances 等开头的句子中,主谓要倒装。这些都是表示否定或半否定意义的词或词组。 例如: Never have I come across such a difficult problem. 我还从没有遇到过这样困难的问题。 Seldom do I read such magazines. 我很少读这种杂志。 No sooner had they left than the bus arrived. 他们刚走,公共汽车就来了。 Never before have I met him. 我以前从未见过他。 Hardly did I think it possible. 我想这几乎不可能。 Not only should we not be afraid of difficulties, but we should try our best to overcome them. 我们不但应该不怕困难,而且要尽最大努力克服困难。 Not until midnight did it stop raining. 直到半夜雨才停。 (正常语序是:It did not stop raining until midnight. 注意not位置的变化) Very seldom do you find that two clocks or watches exactly agree. 你很难发现两个钟或表的时间完全一样。 By no means will this method produce satisfactory results. 这种方法决不会产生令人满意的结果。 翻译练习(使用倒装结构): 1)我从来没有读过这么一本有意思的书。 Never have I read such an interesting book. 2)她一点也不知道会发生什么事。 Little does she know what may happen.
3)我简直不相信这是真的。 Hardly could I believe it (to be) true. 4)我刚到家,就下起大雨来了。 No sooner had I reached home than it began to rain heavily. 5)最近我很少见到她。 Seldom have I met her recently. 6)爱因斯坦不仅是世界闻名的科学家,而且还是一个相当不错的小提琴家。 Not only was Einstein a world famous scientist, but also a fairly good violinist.
7)直到战争结束,他才回家。 Not until after the war did he return home. (正常语序是: He did not return home until after the war.) 8)在任何情况下,我们都不应该做违反人民意愿的事。 Under no circumstances should we do anything against the will of the people. 2.在以“only+状语”开头的句子中,主谓要倒装。这里only后面必须跟有它修饰的状语或状语从句,这是关键。否则就不倒装。 例如: Only after the war was over was man able to realize the wickedness of the atomic bomb. 只是在战争结束后人类才意识到原子弹的可恶。 (注意:only 引导的状语从句不倒装,主句倒装。) Only then did I realize the importance of English. 只在那时我才意识到英语的重要性。 Only in this way can we improve ourselves. 只有用这种方法我们才能不断提高自己。 Only after you finish it can you leave. 只有结束它以后,你才能离开。(主句倒装) 注意:Only 如不在句首,或only 修饰的不是状语,则不倒装。 如: The contract was signed only after bitter negotiations. 只有在艰苦的谈判以后,合同才得以签署。 (改成倒装:Only after bitter negotiations was the contract signed.) Only the senior staff are allowed to use this room. 只许资深的职员使用这个房间。 Only five passengers survived the accident. 事故中只有五位旅客生存了下来。 翻译练习(用倒装结构): 1)我今天早上才听到这个不幸的消息。 →Only this morning did I hear the sad news. 2)他1949年以后才能上学。 →Only after 1949 was he able to go to school. 3)过了几个月,我才看到工作的结果。 →Only after several months did I see the results of my work. 4)经过长时间的争论他才同意我们的意见。 →Only after a long argument did he agree with us. 5)只有这样,你才能学好英语。 →Only in this way can you learn English well. 3.用于以表示处所、声音等意义的副词开头的句子。用表示运动的不及物动词(如go, come, rush, fly 等)作谓语时,为了表示生动,可将某些副词放在句首,谓语动词放在主语之前,形成倒装结构。 例如: Away flew the birds. 鸟儿飞走了。 Out went the children. 孩子们出去了。 Down came the rain. 下起大雨来了。 Bang went the firecracker. 爆竹砰的一声响了。 The door burst open and in rushed a stranger. 门突然开了,一个陌生人冲了进来。 4.用倒装来避免头重脚轻,使句子显得平衡。这主要是因为主语过长或强调表语或状语。 例如: At the center of the big room over there is a table that is made of wood which is imported from Brazil of South America. 在那边那个大房子的中央有一张用从南美洲的巴西进口的木头做成的桌子。 (正常语序:A table that is made of wood which is imported from Brazil of South America is at the center of the big room over there. 这句话主语和谓语间隔太长,不平衡。)
Still wider will be the use of radar, which plays a very important role in our national defense. 雷达在我们的国防事业中起着非常重要的作用,它的用处将会更广泛。 (正常语序:The use of radar, which plays a very important role in our national defense, will be still wider. 主语和谓语间隔太长,不平衡。) Written in English on the blackboard were these words: “Merry Christmas!” 在黑板上用英语写着这么几个字:“圣诞快乐!” Present at the meeting were the school headmaster, the English teacher, and the students’ parents. 出席会议的有校长、英语教师和学生们的家长。 Inside the pyramids are the burial rooms for the kings and queens and long passages to these rooms. 金字塔里面是国王和王后们的墓穴和通往墓穴的长通道。 5.其他用法 (1)倒装还可用在强调表语和宾语的句子中。把表语和宾语提到主语前。 如: Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man of great achievements. 爱因斯坦就是这样一个取得了伟大成就的单纯的人。 Such was the story he told me. 这就是他给我讲的故事。 Happy is he who devotes himself to the cause of communism. 献身于共产主义事业的人是幸福的。
Great have been our achievements since 1978. 自从1978年以来我们取得的成就是伟大的。 So careful is she in doing her job that she never makes mistakes. 她工作如此认真,从来不犯错误。 Involved in the problem are some teaching methods. 牵涉在这个问题中的是某些教学方法。
Written on the label is the model of the machine. 写在标签上的是机器的型号。 Very important in our lives is reading. 在我们生命中非常重要的是读书。 Still greater contributions should we make to promoting the friendship. 为促进友谊我们应当做出更大的贡献。 注意:如主语是代词,且无较长的修饰语时,即便表语提前也不倒装。 如: Terribly hot it certainly was. 天确实是太热了。 A very reliable person he is. 他是一个可靠的人。
(2)某些表示祝愿的句子倒装。 如: Long live the friendship among the Asian people and sportsmen! 亚洲各族人民和运动员之间的友谊万岁! May you return safe and sound. 祝你平安归来! May you succeed. 祝你成功。 May your country become rich and strong. 祝你的祖国繁荣强大。
(3)在以often, always, once, many a time, now and then, every other day, every two hours, thus (方式状语),so (程度状语),in the distance, in front of (地点状语)等开头的句子中,如果强调这些状语,就倒装;如果不想强调这些状语,就不倒装。 如: Often did we warn them not to do it. 我们经常警告他们别做这事。 Often had I intended to speak of it. 我曾经多次想谈及那件事情。 Many a time has he helped me with my experiment. 他不止一次帮我做实验。 Thus was the Emperor deceived. 皇帝就这样受骗了。 So busy is he that he has no time to spare. 他忙得抽不出一点儿时间。 So fast does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. 光的传播太快了,我们很难想象它的速度。 In the distance was a tall tree. 远处有一棵大树。 翻译练习(地点状语放在句首,倒装): 1)在那棵大树底下坐着一个老农民。 Under the big tree was sitting an old farmer. 2)教室的外面站着一个男孩。 Outside the classroom stood a boy.
3)农舍后面是一片稻田。 Behind the farmhouse was a rice field. 4)小山脚下有一个美丽的小湖。 At the foot of the hill lies a beautiful lake.
(4)在直接引语后注明引语是什么人所说的句子里,主语是名词时,常用倒装结构;主语是代词时,往往不用倒装结构。 例如: “You all did well in the exam,” said the teacher. “你们大家考的都很好。”老师说。 “How is your mother?” asked her friend. “你母亲近况如何?”她的朋友问道。
“Let’s go,” suggested Mary. “我们走吧。”玛丽建议说。 “Nonsense!” shouted the man. “胡说!”那个人喊道。 “Whom are you looking for?” she asked. “你找谁?”她问道。 “Yes, I’m a new student,” he answered. “对,我是新生。”他回答说。

倒装句综合练习
1.把下列句子改写成倒装句,把括号里的词放在句首: Models: The lesson had hardly begun when the lights went out. (hardly) →Hardly had the lesson begun when the lights went out. It can’t be done in any other way. (in no other way) →In no other way can it be done. 1)They had never seen such a sight before. (never before) →Never before had they seen such a sight. 2)They had no sooner entered the theatre than the performance began. (no sooner) →No sooner had they entered the theatre than the performance began. 3)She will not do such a thing under any circumstances. (under no circumstances) →Under no circumstances will she do such a thing. 4)The lesson will not begin until everyone is seated. (not until) →Not until everyone is seated will the lesson begin. 5)I will on no account sign this document. (on no account) →On no account will I sign this document. 6)He wrote the letter so badly that I couldn’t read it. (so badly) →So badly did he write the letter that I couldn’t read it. 7)You will succeed only by working hard. (only) →Only by working hard will you succeed. 8)He seldom takes a holiday. (seldom) →Seldom does he take a holiday. 9)He not only advised me what to do; he also lent me the money. (not only) →Not only did he advise me what to do, he also lent me the money. 10)He hardly realizes how ill he is. (hardly) →Hardly does he realize how ill he is. 11)The old man didn’t say a word. (not a word) →Not a word did the old man say. 12)The soldiers didn’t utter a sound while the general was speaking. (not a sound) →Not a sound did the soldiers utter while the general was speaking. 13)I have hardly ever seen anyone so unhappy. (hardly ever) →Hardly ever have I seen anyone so unhappy. 14)I have rarely seen such a beautiful sunset. (rarely) →Rarely have I seen such a beautiful sunset. 15)He didn’t speak to us even once. (not even once) →Not even once did he speak to us.
2.用倒装结构翻译下列句子: 1)枪砰的一声响,鸟儿都飞了。 Crack went the gun and away flew the birds. 2)一群士兵突然冲进宅内。 Suddenly into the house rushed a group of soldiers. 3)他简直没有时间玩。 Scarcely could he find time for playing. 4)我们学校附近有一座高大的建筑。 Near our school there stands a high building. 5)我晚上很少一个人出去散步。 Seldom do I go for a walk in the evening by myself. 6)她几乎无法用言语来表达她的感激之情。 Hardly could she express her gratitude in words. 7)要是你早来一会儿,就赶上火车了。 Had you arrived a little earlier, you could have caught the train. 8)过了一个星期她才知道父亲去世了。 Only after a week did she know about her father’s death. 9)他不但勤奋,而且富有想象力。 Not only is he industrious, but he is also imaginative. 10)如果你听了他的劝告,你早就成功了。 Had you followed his advice, you would have succeeded.

it 用法小结
it 在英语中的意思较多,用法较广,现总结如下。

一、it作句子的真正主语
1.it 指前面已经提到过的人或事物,有时指心目中的或成为问题的人或事物,作真正主语。 例如: What’s this? -It is a sheep? 这是什么??这是一只绵羊。 Who is it? -It’s me (I). 谁??是我。 It’s the wind shaking the window. 是风刮得窗户响。
2.it指时间、季节。一般用在无人称动词的主语。 例如: What time is it? -It’s nine. 几点了??九点了。 It’s time for the meeting. Let’s go. 开会的时间到了,我们走吧。 What day is today? -It’s Saturday. 今天星期几??今天星期六。 What’s the date today? -It is October 1st. 今天是几号? ?今天是十月一日。 What season is it? -It is summer. 现在是什么季节??是夏季。
3.it 指气候。一般作无人称动词的主语。 例如: Is it cold in this room? -No, it isn’t. 屋里冷吗??不冷。 What’s the weather like today? -It is fine. 今天天气怎么样??是晴天。 It often rains in summer and it often snows in winter in this city. 这个城市夏天经常下雨,冬天经常下雪。
4.it指距离、情况等。一般用作无人称动词的主语。 例如: It is five kilometers from my home to the school. 从我家到学校有五公里。 It is very near from this factory to that one. 从这个工厂到那个工厂非常近。 It is a long way to the sea. 离海很远。 Is it well with you? 你身体好吗?
二、it作形式主语
动词不定式、动名词短语起、从句在句子中起主语作用,而这一部分用词较多时,可以用it作为形式主语,放在句首代表其后所说的事实上的、真正的主语,而把真正的主语放在后面。
1.It +谓语+动词不定式。It 作形式主语,动词不定式作真正的主语。 例如: It is difficult to climb a mountain. 爬山是很艰难的。 It’s a good habit to do morning exercises. 作早操是个好习惯。 It’s important to do proper memory work in the study of a foreign language. 在学习外语时适当地做一些有助于记忆的练习是很重要的。 It is right to do so. 这样做是对的。
2.It+谓语+动名词短语。It 作形式主语,动名词短语作真正的主语。 例如: It is dangerous playing with fire. 玩火是危险的。 It is no use learning without thinking. 学而不思则罔。 It’s useless arguing with a silly boy. 和笨孩子争论是没有用的。
3.It +谓语+名词性从句。It 作形式主语,以that 引导的名词性从句是真正的主语。 例如: It is a pity that you didn’t see such a good film. 你没看这么好的电影,真可惜。 It is certain that we shall succeed. 我们一定会成功。
It is strange that nobody knows where he lives. 真奇怪,谁也不知道他住在哪里。 (It is strange that…后面可用虚拟语气。 如:It is strange that he should have made such a mistake. 他居然犯了这样一个错误,真奇怪。 It is strange that nobody should know where he lives. 居然没有人知道他住在哪里,真奇怪。)
It is said that the plane will take off at ten tomorrow morning. 据说飞机明天上午十点起飞。

三、it作形式宾语
it 作形式宾语,代表其后所说的真正的宾语。真正的宾语是以that 引导的名词性从句或不定式短语。例如: I consider it wrong that you Chinese students learn English without comparing it with your own language. 我认为你们中国学生学习英语,不和你们自己的语言比较是不对的。 I find it not so difficult to learn a foreign language. 我发现学习一门外语不那么困难。 I remember I made it clear to you that I was not coming. 我记得向你明确表示过我不来。 They want to make it clear to the public that they are doing an important and necessary job. 他们要向公众表明,他们在做一件重要而又必要的工作。

四、it 用于强调结构
在表示强调的结构中,it 可用作先行代词,这种结构的句型如下:It +is/was +被强调的部分+that +其他部分。如果强调的部分是人,可用who, whom 代替that. 例如: Professor Wang teaches us English every Monday afternoon. 王教授每星期一下午教我们英语。 强调主语:It is Professor Wang who teaches us English every Monday afternoon. 强调间接宾语:It is us whom Prof. Wang teaches English every Monday afternoon.
强调直接宾语:It is English that Prof. Wang teaches us every Monday afternoon. 强调状语:It is every Monday afternoon that Prof. Wang teaches us English. It was here that I first met him. 这就是我初次与他见面的地方。 (强调状语) It is the people who are realy powerful.

翻译练习
1)该上课了,快。 It is time for class. Hurry up. 2)从这儿到你们学校远吗??不远,大约一公里。 Is it far from here to your school? ?No, it isn’t. It’s about a kilometer. 3)从我家到颐和园去很近。 It is very near from my home to the Summer Palace. 4)(天)正在下雨。 It’s raining now.
5)电灯是爱迪生发明的。 It was Edison who invented the electric light. 6)我认为学习一门外语是很重要的。 I think it important to learn a foreign language. 7)他通常一天读两次英语。 He made it a rule to read English twice a day. 8)从我家去天安门广场坐公共汽车大约要一个小时。 It takes about an hour to go from my home to the Tian’anmen Square by bus.

反意疑问句
反意疑问句相当于“对不对?”“好不好?”“行不行?”,用yes或 no 回答。由两部分组成,前一部分是陈述句,后一部分是附加疑问短语,中间用逗号隔开,所以反意疑问句又叫附加疑问句。通常的形式是:肯定的陈述句+否定的附加疑问,或否定的陈述句+肯定的附加疑问。 如: He studies English, doesn’t he? He doesn’t study English, does he? They are from America, aren’t they? They are not from America, are they?
反意疑问句的主要形式: 1.如果主句是be或其他助动词(如can, shall, will 等),其反意疑问句用同一助动词。 如: We are late, aren’t we? You haven’t met my wife, have you? He can drive a car, can’t he? They used to have difficulty in just making ends meet, didn’t (usedn’t) they? You’d better eat with knives and forks, hadn’t you? 2.如果主语带有seldom, hardly, never, rarely, few, little等否定词或半否定词时,因为主句本身具有否定意义,附加疑问部分的动词用肯定式, 如: We seldom go to the cinema, do we? Sue almost never worked, did she? 3.如果主句部分是 “I am…”结构,由于”am not” 没有相应的缩略形式,附加疑问部分一般用aren’t I 代替。 如: I am your friend, aren’t I? I’m late, aren’t I? I am a student, aren’t I? 在祈使句中的附加疑问部分一般用will you, won’t you. 4. 在祈使句中的附加疑问部分一般用will you, won’t you. 如: Sit down, will you? Have some tea, won’t you? Open the window, won’t you? 这种句子可以理解为: Will you do something? 如:Will you open the window? 注意:否定的祈使句之后,只能用will. 如: Don’t forget, will you? Don’t make so much noise, will you? 5.以Let’s… 开头的祈使句,肯定的用shall we? 否定的用all right? 或OK?, 如: Let’s go back to our seats, shall we? Let’s not have hot food this time, OK? (all right?) 这种句子可以理解为:Shall we (do something?), 如:Shall we go back to our seats.这样有助于理解和记忆。
注意:Let’s 与Let us 的区别:Let’s包括听话人在内,应用shall we, 而Let us 不包括听话人在内,表示“请你让我们…”,要用will you. 如: Let’s watch the news on TV, shall we? (表示建议) Let us watch the news on TV, will you? (表示请求)
6.主句是I suppose, I think, I believe等时,附加疑问部分则往往与that 从句中的主语和谓语动词保持对应关系,但要注意否定的转移。 如: I suppose that you know the meaning of the word, don’t you? (这句话明显是要问“你是不是知道?”而不是问“我是不是这样认为?”) I don’t think that you have read the book, have you?
7.当主句的动词have 表示“拥有”时,附加疑问既可用have, 也可用do, 如: You have a color TV set, haven’t you/don’t you?
当主句的have不表示“拥有”而表示其他意思时,附加疑问要用do, 如: You had a cold yesterday, didn’t you? They don’t have coffee with breakfast, do they?
8.There be句型的反意疑问句,用there 作主语。 如: There is something wrong, isn’t there? There won’t be any trouble, will there? 不会有任何麻烦,是吗? 9.陈述部分的主语是everyone, someone, anyone, no one, nobody等不定代词时,其疑问部分的主语可用he, 也可用they. 如: Everyone knows it, doesn’t he/don’t they?
英语反意疑问句的回答有点和汉语的相反。但一定要记住:只要回答是肯定的,都用yes,只要回答是否定的,都用no。这在主句是否定句的时候要特别注意。例如: Mr. Jones can’t speak French, can he? ?No, he can’t. 琼斯先生不会讲法语,对吗??对,他不会讲法语。 Mr. Jones can’t speak French, can he? ?Yes, he can. 琼斯先生不会讲法语,对吗??不,他会讲法语。 This is not a door, is it? -Yes, it is. It is an iron door. 这不是门,对吗??不,这是门。是扇铁门。

练习
完成下列反意疑问句,并译出后面的回答。 1)There is a dog under the tree, _____? 是的,有。 →isn’t there? Yes, there is. 2)They are laughing at me, ____? 不,没有。/ 对,是的。 →aren’t they? No, they aren’t. / Yes, they are. 3)We haven’t visited that college, _____? 对,还没有。 →have we? No, we haven’t. 4)She wants to be a nurse, _____? 不,她不想。/是的,她想。 →doesn’t she? No, she doesn’t. /Yes, she does. 5)Girls don’t smoke, ____? 是的,是这样。/ 不,抽。而且有人抽得很凶。 →do they? No, they don’t. /Yes, they do. And some are heavy smokers 6)We shall not have classes on Sunday, _____? 是的,不上。 →Shall we? No, we shan’t. 7)You watch English videos, ____? 不,不看。/是的,我们常看,每周三次。 →don’t you? No, we don’t. /Yes, we often do. We watch them three times a week. 8)Wait outside, ____? 不,我不。/好的,可以。 →won’t you? No, I won’t. /Yes, I will. 9)Don’t move, ____? 好的,我不动。/不,我要动。 →will you? No, I won’t. /Yes, I will. 10)She is not here, ____? 是的,不在。/不,她在。就坐在我后面。 →is she? No, she isn’t. /Yes, she is. She is sitting just behind me.

连接词
连接词是英语中的一个重要组成部分,它们连接英语的句子和段落,使文章流畅自然,使英语句子与句子之间,段落与段落之间的关系一目了然。中国的语法书上一般不专门涉及连接词。鉴于中国学生在应用英语(尤其是写作)的时候常常犯连接词错误,如不用连接词、在使用连接词时错用标点符号等,我们有必要专门讲述连接词。 英语中连接词分为两大类:连词性连接词(即连词)和副词性连接词。

连词
连词用来连接词与词、短语与短语或句子与句子。连词不能单独作句子成分,也没有词形变化。连词分为并列连词和从属连词两种。
一、并列连词 并列连词用来连接句子中担任相同成分的词、短语或分句。常见的有七个单词和四个短语:and, but, or, for(因为), nor, so, yet; both…and…, not only….but also…., either…or…., neither…nor… 1.and用来连接词、短语或分句,表示并列或对称关系: The man put on his coat and hat, and went out of the office. 那个人穿上外衣、戴上帽子,走出了办公室。 A car and a dictionary are both useful. 汽车和字典都有用处。 I went home and John stayed there. 我回家了,而约翰呆在那里。
2.but连接两个含义不同甚至相反的词、短语或分句,表示转折: Not everybody is honest and hardworking, but Tom is. 并非每个人都诚实肯干,但汤姆是的。 We tried to persuade her to do it but failed. 我们尽力说服她去做,但没有成功。
3.or表示两者居其一,表示选择: Which VCD player is better, this one or that one? 哪个VCD更好,这个还是那个? Are you hungry or not? 你饿了没有?
4.For(因为)只能放在表示结过的分句后面,引导表示原因的分句: I must be going, for it’s getting dark. 我必须走了,因为天黑了。 He didn’t go there, for he was ill. 他没到那儿去,因为他病了。
5.Both…and…只能用来连接两个并列的词或短语,不能连接句子: His plan is both easy and practical. 他的计划既容易又实用。 Zhang Yimou is a famous director both at home and abroad. 张艺谋是一位在国内外都著名的导演。 Both this plane and its engines are made in China. 飞机和它的发动机都是中国制造的。
6.Not only…but also…不但能连接词和短语,而且还能连接分句。Also 有时省略。注意not only 位于句首时,主语和谓语需要倒装: He is not only an actor but also a writer. 他不仅是演员,而且是作家。 He not only read it but also remembered what he had read. 他不但读过,而且记住了所读过的东西。 When we talk about the universe, we mean not only the earth, the sun, and the moon, but (also) all the other things too far away for us to see. 当我们谈到宇宙时,我们不但指地球、太阳和月亮,而且还指一切远得看不见的其他东西。 Not only did he say it but (also) he did it. 他不但说了,而且做了。(倒装)
Not only do the nurses want a pay rise, but also they want reduced hours. 护士们不但要求加工资,而且还要求缩短工时。(倒装)
7.Either…or…表示选择,“或者…或者…”、“不是….就是…”的意思。注意either…or…(整个结构作主语时)句子中的动词通常要和邻近的主语相一致。 Either you are wrong, or I am. 不是你错了,就是我错了。 Either you or he is going to get the job. 不是你就是他将获得这份工作。
Can I borrow either your car or your bike? 我可以借用你的汽车或者你的自行车吗? If you’re late, you should make an apology to the host either immediately or later. 如果你迟到了,你应该立即或事后向主人道歉。
8.Neither…nor…表示“既不….又不…”的意思。注意neither…nor…整个结构作主语时,句子中的谓语动词通常要和邻近的主语一致: Neither the students nor I am ready yet. 学生们和我都还没有准备好。 He worked neither for fame nor for money. 他干工作既不图名又不图利。 The girl could neither speak nor write the language. 这个女孩既不会说也不会写那种语言。
9.So(因此),引导表示结过的分句,原因分句在前。(与for相反) It’s getting dark, so I must be going. 天黑了,因此我得走了。 I had a headache, so I went to bed early last night. 我头痛,于是昨晚很早就睡了。
10.Yet (然而),有时和and 一起用,表示吃惊、表示转折,相当于but at the same time, however, nevertheless: She is vain and foolish, and yet people like her. 她既虚荣又愚蠢,然而人们却喜欢她。 She’s a funny girl, yet you can’t help liking her. 她是个疯疯癫癫的女孩,然而你却禁不住喜欢她。 He worked hard, yet he failed. 他很努力,然而却失败了。 It’s strange, yet it’s true. 这事有点怪,却是真的。
He’s a wealthy, yet honest, businessman. 他是个富有而又诚实的商人。 It is only a little shop and yet it always has such lovely decorations. 那只是个小店,却总是有漂亮的装饰。 You can draw a good horse in five minutes, yet you kept me waiting for a year. 你能在五分钟内画出一匹好看的马,然而你让我等了一年。
二、从属连词
从属连词是用来引导从句的。
1.连词that, if, whether,连接代词what, which, who, whom, whose以及连接副词how, when, why, where可用来引导名词从句,充当主语、表语、宾语等。非正式文体中的宾语从句常省略that: I think (that) he’ll be back in an hour. 我认为他一小时后就会回来。 Who they are doesn’t matter much. 他们是谁没什么大关系。 Can you tell me where he is? 你能告诉我他在哪儿吗? He asked me if/whether I knew John. 他问我是否认识约翰。 此外,that, which, who, whom, whose, when, why, where等还可以引导定语从句。 2.连词when, while, before, after, till/until, since, as soon as等引导时间状语从句: She said hello to me when she saw me. 她看到我的时候,和我打了招呼。 I’ll wait here until you come back. 我将在这里等你回来。
3.连词if, unless引导条件状语从句;because, as, since引导原因状语从句: I’ll help her if she asks me to. 如果她要求我,我就帮助她。 I won’t help her unless she asks me to. 除非她要求我,否则我不会帮她。 He didn’t come because he was ill. 因为他病了,所以没来。 As he hasn’t appeared yet, we shall start without him. 既然他还没有出现,我们就先开始吧。 Since everybody is here, let’s begin. 既然大家都到了,咱们就开始吧。 4.连词in order than, so that引导目的状语从句;so…that…引导结果状语从句: I locked the door in order that we might continue our discussions undisturbed. (=I locked the door in order to continue our discussions undisturbed.) 我把门锁上了,以便我们可以继续讨论而不受打扰。 The car ran so fast that I couldn’t see who was in it. 汽车跑得那么快,我没看清谁坐在里面。
5.连词than, as…as…, not as/so…as…用来引导比较状语从句: He is better educated than his brother. 他比他兄弟受的教育好。 He is as well educated as his brother. 他和他兄弟受的教育一样好。 He is not as/so well educated as his brother. 他没有他兄弟受的教育好。
6.连词although, though 引导让步状语从句;where, wherever 引导地点状语从句: I’ll go wherever you go. 不管你去哪儿,我就去那儿。 Stay where you are! 原地别动! Though/Although she is rich, she’s not happy. 尽管她富有,但她并不幸福。 一般来说,连词性质的连接词连接两个分句或引导一个从句,两个分句或主从复合句之间用逗号连接。

副词性连接词
副词性质的连接词不能象连词一样分句或主从复合句之间用逗号连接。也就是说它们不能连接两个分句或引导从句。它们引导的句子与前面的句子之间要用分号或句号,而它们与引导的句子之间往往用逗号。副词性质的连接词在写作中常常使用,主要分为以下几类: 1.表示顺序的,如first, in the first place, then, finally, in the end等等。尤其要注意then. 如: 误:He graduated from college in 2003, then he found a job. 正:He graduated from college in 2003, and then he found a job. He graduated from college in 2003. Then he found a job.
2.表示递进关系的,如in addition, what is more, furthermore, moreover等。注意in addition 与in addition to 的区别:in addition 是副词性质;而in addition to 是介词性质,后面必须接宾语。
3.表示转折关系的,如 however, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, in contrast, 等等。要注意不要把however 当成连词: 误:In 2003, the United States launched the war on Iraq on account of Iraq possessing weapons of mass destruction (WMD), however, no WMD has been found in Iraq so far. 正:In 2003, the United States launched the war on Iraq on account of Iraq possessing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). However, no WMD has been found in Iraq so far. In 2003, the United States launched the war on Iraq on account of Iraq possessing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). No WMD, however, has been found in Iraq so far.
4.表示结果的,如therefore, consequently, thus, hence, as a result等。尤其要注意therefore, thus等不是连词以及hence的用法。如: I am busy today, so can you come tomorrow? I’ve never been to Spain. Therefore, I don’t know much about it. The town was built on the side of the hill, hence the name Hillside.
5.举例的,如for example, for instance, take…for example等。注意,for example, for instance 是副词性质,举例说明时,前面要用句号;take…for example本身是一个句子结构。 He has been very helpful to me. For example, he would offer to lend me money whenever I am in need.
6.表示条件的,意思为“否则”,如or, otherwise等,注意它们不是连词。 Put down your arms and put up your hands. Or/Otherwise I will shoot you. 放下武器,举起手来,否则我就开枪。 当然,or 有时表示选择(相当于either…or…省略了either): Put down your arms, or get killed. 要么放下武器,要么找死。

另外,您还可以点击:能飞背单词,里面提供了英语单词词库,有图片,有真人发音,有联想,有爆笑谐音,有词根,还可以高速在线背单词。立即进入能飞背单词软件 在线背单词服务,http://word.langfly.com  ,免费感受飞一般的记忆吧!

体验智能记忆 记住文章里的生词